History 02/01/20 Why under Stalin, the Soviet planes were created by the designers-the prisoners
in the Soviet Union In 20-ies was invented a new form of research and development work. Leading specialists in different areas, primarily in the military sphere, have been arrested, but they were not sent to cut timber or dig canals, they created the KB. There designers, being prisoners, were engaged in the direct work. Planted, of course, not only chief designer, but also all necessary personnel. This form was certainly economical: wages no need to pay, just to feed. Instead of awards, it was possible to threaten reprisals against family members. Received such organizations the popular name of the “sharashka”. Similar forms were used in all the defence (and only defence) industries.
Started the whole story of the “friend” with the creation in 1929 for the needs of aviation industry of the Central Design Bureau No. 39 (TSKB-39) of the OGPU them. Menzhinskogo. The idea of creating the CDB-39 emerged after the arrest of Dmitry Grigorovich, the only aircraft of the Russian Empire with a worldwide reputation, which was working in USSR and not emigrated. In 1928 he was arrested and sentenced to ten years in the camps. However, the camp was — he was asked to make a list of the most capable engineers, who would engage in the very important state jobs. All the people from the list were arrested, and made a new team, which, in the opinion of management of the OGPU and had to successfully solve the task of creation of military aviation.
the Most famous aircraft TSKB-39 was a fighter I-5, the creators of which are considered D. P. Grigorovich and N. N. Polikarpov. The working title of this fighter was W-11, which stands for “Domestic prison – 11”. Immediately after W-11, under the guidance of the Dawson attackor to work on heavy bomber TB-5. It is interesting that the development of engines for the bomber was organized another “sharaga” under the name of the Special Technical Bureau (OTB) of the OGPU in aircraft engines.
Simultaneously with the work on the TB-5 under the direction of Grigorovich was created fighters And-Z and D-3, storm troopers, LSH-1, TSH-1 and TSH-2, carrier-based attack aircraft SEAN, Maritime reconnaissance RUM-2, a new modification on the basis of reconnaissance P-5. The team worked on Polikarpov fighters I-9 I-11 and bomber TB-fed-3.
the Majority of prisoners from TSKB-39 was released in 1931. However, the idea of aviation “friend” was enduring. 10 January 1939, came the “Order of people’s Commissar of internal Affairs of the USSR No. 0021 on the organization of the Special technical Bureau”. In the composition of the OTB was established TSKB-29 NKVD, to work in the field of aviation. In early 1938, with the expanse of the Gulag in the suburban colony in the village of Bolshevo began to take all those arrested by the time the aviation engineers and designers. The number of arrests of experts related to aviation industry, according to D. A. Sobolev, “Repression in the Soviet aircraft industry measured hundreds”. Later TSKB-29 moved to Moscow and was formed in four brigades, under the leadership of V. M. Petlyakov, V. M. Myasishchev, A. N. Tupolev and D. Tomasevic.
a Team of Petlyakov worked on the development of high-altitude fighter VI-100. After testing the aircraft, it was decided on its basis to make bomber PB-100, which entered service with the red army, called PE-2.
a Team of Myasishchev was created by a distant high-altitude bomber DVB-102. To create the bomber failed for traditional reasons — it was not the right engine.
a Team of Tupolev worked on the distant four-engine dive bomber “103”. Create a plane under the proposed requirements was impossible, and he was processed into a conventional bomber known as the Tu-2.
A team of Tomashevich was working on the front-line fighter “And 110” for the promising engine VK-107. Fighter never adopted.
among the other aircraft in the CDB-29 was Robert Bartini. In the “sharashka” he was primarily engaged in the alteration of its passenger aircraft “Steel-7” in the bomber DB-240. Officially, this job was entrusted to his Deputy V. G. Ermolaev, and the aircraft was put into service under the name EP-2. Working in the “sharashka” Bartini created projects jet fighters R and R-114, and transport aircraft T-107, T-108, T-117 and T-200. All these machines were taken into service, but served as an example for further developments, especially in military transport aircraft. Although the CDB-29 was disbanded during the war years, Robert Bartini worked in prison until 1946.
© Russian Seven
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