History 27/12/19 Why the USSR was not the armies of the Union republics
the Red Army has gone down in history as a crushing force that destroyed fascism and advancing to the Elbe. However, few people know that the Soviet Union could have not one army, but several – the number of the Union republics.
“Indigenization” in the red Army
In the first years after the creation of the Soviet Union, the Bolsheviks pursued a policy of “indigenization” — the strengthening of national cadres in the republics. On this wave in 1923, the red Army introduced the national-territorial principle of recruitment. First, in the Transcaucasian republics, and then in Ukraine, a national division. The next step, as expected, will complete the formation of the Republican armies. These plans Moscow has attracted attention abroad. Edition Revue Militaire Francaise 1 Feb 1924 wrote:
“In the period 1918-1923 the brunt of the military burden were laid mostly on the population of great Russia, because Bolshevism only gradually extended their influence to the outlying areas of the tsarist Empire. A new government organization (the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – USSR) makes possible a more even distribution of the burden. That is why the Bolshevik government decided to create national army in the various republics that surround the great core” (quoted from the book of Konstantin Karskogo “the Red Army in light of his contemporaries whites and foreigners”).
Anonymous French commentator also suggested that the national army will allow the Bolsheviks to “strengthen the political influence on the borders” and to use “the Patriotic feelings of different nationalities”. On the “non-Russian” patriotism really encouraged to rely on Leon Trotsky. This policy, according to historians, more active than others promoted the idea of the Republican armies. According to Trotsky, the only way the Soviet government could demonstrate that solves national issues consistently.
In 1925, the national military unit made up 10% of the total number of the red Army. But in 1928, already 70% of the infantry were local, and often mono-ethnic groups. For example, in the Ukrainian military district where in the mid 20-ies was served almost exclusively Ukrainians, the Ukrainian language was used to giving orders, and when political work with men. At the same time, not the entire command structure, “Ukrainian” divisions in practice able to communicate to the “move”.
the Rate at unity
Although Joseph Stalin as Commissar for nationalities supported the “indigenization”, he was against its active transference to the military sphere. “Father of the people” feared the nationalist-separatist sentiments. Indeed, it would be worth some kind of commander to take a course on the separation of their Republic – and he would not have to complete for this army, as it would have been at hand.
Political influence of Leon Trotsky in the second half of 1920-ies came to naught. So in the end, on the formation of separate divisions of the national military construction in the Soviet Union has not moved. In 30-ies began the opposite process – the unification. So, the policy of “Ukrainianization” in the red Army was curtailed immediately after the collectivization accompanied by famine in the Ukraine. Obviously, Stalin feared the uprising of the Ukrainian soldiers. Instead of having to adapt to the languages of national minorities, the authorities began to actively teach the Russian language citizens to be called up.
again the National side were established in the USSR during the great Patriotic war in connection with the need to use all reserves. But immediately after the Victory, these formations were disbanded. To rehabilitate the idea of “national armies”, according to historian Michael Pazin, trying NKVD chief Lavrenty Beria, but Stalin in this matter is not supported. In recent times the idea of “Republican armies” appeared in the era of Gorbachev’s perestroika. Otdelname politicians and publicists such a measure served as a means for preserving the Soviet Union. However, as we know, since 1992 began the history of national armies of independent States.
© Russian Seven
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