History 14/01/20 Why immigrants from the USSR were forced to pay for “free” education
the Emigration from the USSR to Western countries increased from the mid-sixties, and left mostly highly qualified specialists and persons of intellectual labor. In order to stop “brain drain” of Soviet power has introduced unprecedented in world practice, education tax, equal to the sum of the cost of education at the University.
the Passport for the price of a cow
Leave the state behind the “iron curtain” has always been problematic. Some exceptions, Soviet power was only for those who went to developing countries. It was, for example, about girls, leaving to marry who studied in the USSR foreigners. Emigration in the capitalist state was seen as a betrayal.
for the First time with the problem of outflow of people, the Bolsheviks faced in the early twenties, when Soviet Russia was still a country with relatively open borders. Lenin was allowed to go to the West passengers “philosophical steamer”, but besides them abroad was torn a lot of people, which the Soviet government wished to retain. Therefore, in 1921 the price of passports has been enhanced up to 300 thousand rubles — about as much at that time in the village was 1 horse. Further emigration was completely prohibited.
the Decree, 1972
Paramount question of emigration had for the Soviet Jews who wanted to go to the “historical homeland” — Israel. From 1945 to 1955 were leaving an average of 50 people a year over the next decade — for 415 people annually. In 1965 the quota for the departure was 1500 people. In 1970, to exercise the right of emigration could have 3,000 Soviet citizens. In subsequent years, the stream has grown even stronger. In addition to the Jews, leaving the Germans (3200 people in 1972), Armenians and representatives of other peoples. To return to the direct restrictions the Communists didn’t since the topic facilitate the right to travel has played a big role in the negotiations with the United States — in normal trade with that country, the Soviet Union was in need. The study of the social portrait of immigrants-mostly people with higher education, suggested the Brezhnev government is the solution to the problem.
In August 1972 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a decree, according to which travelling abroad had to reimburse the state the costs of “training in higher education, postgraduate, residency, graduate military course and to obtain the relevant degree.” Thanks to a decree by the citizens, perhaps for the first time learned that the higher education institutions of the USSR, the former is equally free, in fact cost different. For example, a graduate of Moscow state University paid of 12.2 thousand who have graduated from other universities — from 3600 to 9800 rubles. From tax exempt persons with disabilities, persons over 60 years of age, and a number of other categories.
“tight-knit world protest”
to Pay for the departure of Soviet citizens was difficult because the average salary in the country was 150 rubles. However, there were those who were able to quickly find the desired amount and actually buy a “ticket to the free world” (according to some reports, a significant role played by financial assistance from abroad). In 1972, the budget of the Union from immigrants received 4.5 million rubles, 1.5 million in 1973. the flip side of the coin was the extremely sharp reaction of the international community. “For 55 years of the Soviet regime there was no massive crime has not caused such a friendly pressure world of protest, as a tax on educated emigrants,” said the political analyst Nikolai Sivuhin.
Soviet citizens who wanted to leave, sent a letter to UN in which he called the decree “a serf dependence for people with higher education.” In the fall of 1972 and the protests against the decree said 5,000 American professors. Also, resentment was expressed by 21 Nobel prize. But worst of all was the fact that the U.S. Senate has suspended the training of dogsora on the regime of trade favored that really count in Moscow. After discussion of the topic in Politburo of government ceased to collect money from the immigrants, although technically the decree continued to operate until may 21, 1991.
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