History 23/02/20 Why don Cossacks fought against Russian in the time of troubles
All accustomed to thinking that the Cossacks were the most loyal “servants of the Tsar and Fatherland”. Such a stereotype has been formed under the influence of two centuries of history of the Russian Empire.
Initially, the Cossacks were not the state bar, and the free people of the steppes, created their own independent States based on ancient (and – increasingly – the ancient Indo-European “barbaric”) traditions of popular rule. All officers of the Cossacks were elected from the bottom up, and important cases were tried together in the meeting all armed men-the Cossacks – Military meeting.
the Cossacks gave sanctuary to fugitive serfs and slaves, do not pay anyone taxes, obeyed only their elected authorities, self-led foreign policy, including with Moscow kings, behaved with them as an independent power. The biggest and best organized of the Cossack community was the great don Army. From time to time between it and Russia had armed conflicts caused by the insistence of Moscow to subdue the Cossack military force and make it serve the interests of the Imperial power, to ensure the interests of the Russian feudal serf-owners demanding the extradition of fugitive.
If the monarchs believed that the purpose of this service the Cossacks, the Cossacks have always perceived a border service of Russia, Lithuania and Poland as a result of voluntary agreements. And if the monarchs did not fulfill any of the terms of the agreement in the recruitment process, the Cossacks considered themselves free from it.
the XVI century
the date of creation of the don Cossack army was considered on 3 January 1570. This day dates back to the first Charter of Tsar Ivan IV the don Cossacks. But it shows that the don Cossacks at that time already existed as a strong independent state. His existence indicate the documents of the Moscow rulersagain St from the beginning of the XVI century. The don Cossacks were free allies of Moscow in the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan in the 50-ies of the XVI century, their units were involved in guarding the new Eastern borders of the Moscow state in the development of the Ural merchants Stroganov, in the conquest of Siberia by Ermak detachment. Natives don was laid in 1557 the beginning of the basis of the Cossack troops on the Terek.
In 1584 for the first time, the don Cossacks swore allegiance to the Moscow Tsar (Fedor Ivanovich). However, understanding of the oath was quite different. If for Moscow it meant unconditional obedience to the king, the Cossacks took it as an oath in the performance of the terms of equal bilateral agreement between the Don and Moscow. And own orders the troops of the don, and the Cossacks the right to refuse allegiance to the king, if he did not comply with its obligations under the agreement, was unshakable in the minds of the don.
the War with Moscow in time of Troubles
the Largest war between the Don and Moscow erupted in the time of Troubles beginning of the XVII century. In fact, the Cossacks did not go, formally, beyond the oath. The reason for the protests against the Moscow authorities was the appearance of impostors and the belief that the Tsar in Moscow illegal. Thus, the revolt against Moscow was under loyalist slogans of loyalty to the legitimate king. Incentive for broad participation of the Cossacks in the events of the time of Troubles was the beginning of the Muscovy enslavement of the peasants, which caused a wave of shoots of the Russian rural population to the don.
in 1603, the false Dmitry I, when he was preparing in Poland to March on Moscow, came messengers from the don Cossacks, and promised to support it. They did not disappoint, and two thousand under the command of don atamans Andrew Karels and Michael Miakova took part in the campaign of the pretender. When false Dmitry was defeated by the Royal Governor and was forced to retreat temporarily, several hundred of the don (Zaporozhye) Cossacks strengthened in chrome. There they all winter 1604/05 the city sustained a siege against superior in desadand once the king’s troops. Under the burnt wooden walls of the town the Cossacks made of earthworks, connected by numerous moves, ambushes and raids, and Governor Boris Godunov had nothing to do about them. A skilled defense Chrome Cossacks played an important role in the success of the first impostor. Representative Embassy of the don troops, who brought rich gifts, was present at the coronation “wonderfully rescued by the son of Ivan the terrible.”
After the murder of false Dmitry I, the don Cossacks participated in the groups, speaking on behalf of the new impostor (posing as usual), and after he was killed, scattered all over Russia and began to act like someone. Many have turned into gangs of robbers. But quite a significant part of the Cossacks managed to consolidate around ataman Ivan Zarutsky, the Queen’s lover, Marina Mniszek, the wife of both false Dmitry.
Under the leadership of the Cossacks Zarutsky already formally rebelled against the Russian authorities after Moscow boyars called reign of the Polish Prince Ladislas. Cossacks did not recognize the foreign king-a Catholic and began fighting against the Polish military commanders in charge in Moscow, the name of a legitimate king. The don Cossacks were the core of Russian national-liberation uprising against Polish-Lithuanian occupation (as it turned out decades later – for the destruction of their own liberties). Around the Cossacks Zarutsky has been consolidated with the First national militia, unsuccessfully besieged Moscow in 1611. In 1612 the Cossacks helped the Second militia to seize the capital. But then a feud broke out concerning the succession. As a result, Russia for more than two years, was devastated by the war, and only in 1614, the Royal Governor seized in Astrakhan Zarutsky to the Queen and their son.
the Last war of independence
during the seventeenth century the Moscow government pursued a steady policy of subordinating the don troops, integrating, by the privileges of its elite in the ruling class of the state. Under Peter I the attack on the liberties of the Cossacks acquired unprecedented proportions. This coincided with the rampant destruction of the Russian people in the “blessings” of the authorities. The don has accumulated a critical mass of protest.
the Outrage was provoked by the investigation of runaway peasants and dissenters. Royal search teams were catching people who were executed, tortured, committed atrocities, raping women and girls. The Cup of patience was exhausted, and in the autumn of 1707, a rebellion broke out under the leadership of Kondraty Bulavin. It was the last (until the early twentieth century) the war of don for independence. With the help of a tame elite Troops that changed the Cossack antiquity, the power of the only Peter I in 1709 was able to suppress the uprising.
as a result of punitive operations Peter Governor don has lost a third of its population. Two thousand Dontsov (the believers), led by ataman Ignat Nekrasov, managed to flee to the Kuban, in the Ottoman Empire. Here they laid the Foundation for “Nekrasov” – the Cossack community in Turkey.
© Russian Seven
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