Why, after the Bolshevik revolution, Siberia became an independent state

History 19/02/20 Why after the Bolshevik revolution, Siberia became an independent state

In Siberia in the period of liberal reforms 1860-70-ies, there was a public course, called “regionalism”. Its leaders (G. N. Potanin, N. M. Yadrintsev etc.) were in favour of giving Siberia autonomy within the Russian Empire, the introduction of Zemstvos and of juries, the development of the educational and cultural institutions, the removal of administrative obstacles for the settlement of Siberia, the cessation of the links of criminals to Siberia. Yadrintsev released (1882) the book “Siberia as a colony”, which attracted condemnation from Moscow and Petersburg liberals, but became the basis for the worldview of the Siberian patriots, as he was called by the regionalists.

self-Government of Siberia

the Desire regionalists to preach in the legal field not saved them from persecution by the tsarist authorities. Along with the regionalists, was more radical elements, mostly political exiles from European Russia. They compared the population of Siberia and the colonization of America, in 1860, raised the slogan “United States of Siberia”. Revolution of 1905-1907, and especially the February revolution of 1917, revived social movement for self-government of Siberia.

In August, 1917, was held in Tomsk Siberian regional Congress. Contrary to Potanin and other old regionalists, a young radical majority of the Congress called for the establishment of the Provisional Siberian government and the legislative Siberian regional Duma and the Declaration of independence of Siberia before the convening of the national Constituent Assembly. Then appeared and quickly became popular white-green flag of an independent Siberia.

In December 1917 there began the extraordinary Siberian regional Congress of representatives of various organizations of democratically elected Zemstvos and city councils, cooperatives, peasant and Cossack societies, Nazitional groups, etc. At this time, the idea of Siberian autonomy was opposed to it, attempts to spread to Siberia by Soviet authorities. After the dissolution by the Bolsheviks of the all-Russian Constituent Assembly, Siberian Congress in late January 1918, elected from its membership of the Siberian regional Duma (SOD). 8 February 1918 the Tomsk Soviet of workers ‘and soldiers’ deputies dispersed it, but the Duma has continued its activities illegally, creating an underground Temporary Siberian government (GSP).

the Creation of conspiratorial organizations

In Siberia created the conspiratorial organization, mainly officers, which aims to overthrow the Bolsheviks. They made contact with the command of the Czechoslovak corps, evacuated through Siberia. The Czechs agreed to help, the more that they themselves are ready to revolt. At the end of may – beginning of June 1918, in many points of the TRANS-Siberian railway had been planned in advance of the performance of the Czechoslovak corps, which immediately joined the underground group and the white part of the population. Soviet power was overthrown for eight thousand versts from the Volga to the Amur.

the head of the clandestine VSP Peter Gerber and several Ministers were at this time in Vladivostok, controlled by American and Japanese invaders. In Tomsk, on behalf of VSP acted SR West Siberian Commissariat. At the same time in the band TRANS-Siberian railway was born a few regional governments did not acknowledge the group Gerbera, moved in early June 1918 in Omsk, the right to rule. Talks began about a new organization of power in Siberia. June 30 was formed a new VSP, the head of which was oblastniki and right SR Peter Vologda.

July 17 (July 4 in old style date was chosen with intent), 1918, appeared the “Declaration on the state independence of Siberia” signed by the head and members of the VSP. It was stated that “the Russian state as suchy no longer exists,” and declared that the VSP together with the ODS assumes all the power in Siberia, has the right relations with foreign States, and no other power, besides GSP, can not act in Siberia. GSP promised to soon convene an all-Siberian Constituent Assembly. However, emphasized that RCA “does not consider Siberia forever cut off from those territories, which together made up the Russian state, and believes that all his efforts should be directed to the re-establishment of Russian statehood”. The nature of the relationship of Siberia to European Russia, after the final overthrow of the Bolsheviks, were to be determined by a bilateral agreement between all-Russian and all-Siberian Constituent Assembly.

However, SOD was not met, and as for the Siberian Constituent Assembly, efforts www on the reconstruction of the Russian state more and more prevailed over the Siberian autonomism. GSP sought to unite all anti-Bolshevik forces. It participated in the Ufa state conference representatives of regional governments, political parties and public organizations of the Volga region, the Urals and Siberia, liberated from Soviet rule. The meeting was held in September 1918 in Ufa, and ended with the creation of the all-Russian Provisional government (the Directory), which was to transfer power to the constituent Assembly in 1918. The Constitution of the Ufa Directory meant Federation Russian territories, and GSP continued to exist.

the 9th of October 1918 the Directory in connection with the attack of red left Ufa and moved to Omsk, then the www, with its state apparatus, has actually turned into a working Cabinet of Ministers “Russian” Directory. The head of Vologda VSP was one of the five members of the Directory. November 3, the Directory decided to dissolve all the regional government. This day is considered the end of the temporary Siberian statehood period Grascivil war. While VSP was officially transformed into the “all-Russian” the Council of Ministers and, with the exception of some personal return, remained with Kolchak. Some members of the VSP, including Vologda, contributed to the announcement of the sole Kolchak, “Supreme ruler” of Russia (18 November 1918) and the dissolution of the im Directory.

the Power of the www nominally stretched from the Urals to the Pacific, and a regional government until November 1918 recognized this right www. In Siberia in a short time of its state independence was held a powerful organizational and unifying the work, which became the basis for the white guard “all-Russian” state when Kolchak. The efforts of VSP was here, on the basis of universal military duty, mobilized the Siberian army, the former then the basis of the military forces of Kolchak.

Yaroslav Butakov

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