Another 08/02/20 Who actually provoked the Cuban missile crisis
Caribbean (Cuban) crisis, set in the autumn of 1962 the world on the brink of nuclear war, still raises many questions for which there is no clear answer.
Whose are you, Castro?
In Western circles have long been discussing the question of why so easily able to Fidel Castro, one of the nomadic figures of the Cuban missile crisis, to gain a foothold at the helm of the Cuban state. After all, the US had every opportunity not to allow the revolutionary to power. Canadian writer Henry Makow is of the opinion that it was someone profitable.
according to Makov, President of Cuba from 1953 to 1959, Fulgencio Batista was a dangerous example of economic autonomy, which after decades for the United States was to Muammar Gaddafi. Replacing Batista Castro was supposed to be a leader, able to transform Cuba into a “beggar and a slave country,” says the publicist.
According to Makov, Fidel Castro was originally sponsored by Citibank, headed by Rockefeller. Instead, the American tycoon could count on largest cobalt-Nickel Deposit of MoA Bay, located in Cuba. According to independent estimates, there was concentrated to 37% of proven world reserves of Nickel. Indeed, the Rockefellers were the investors of the companies, subsequently mastered the contracts for the procurement of Nickel and cobalt to the United States from Cuba. However, how to explain the fact that the company Rockefeller’s Standard Oil during the nationalization in Cuba lost three refineries?
But Castro was more profitable for the CIA? It is known that before coming to power, the Cuban leader had studied the art of economic terrorism and guerrilla war the Colonel of a special purpose of the U.S. army William A. Morgan from Ohio. Subsequently, Castro himself admitted that were looking for contacts with anyone who would have helped him come to power and make Cuba independent.
Who provoked the crisis?
Today there is no consensus on who is responsible for the outbreak of the Cuban missile crisis. Some believe that it was a direct consequence of the landing of the Cuban exiles, supported by the U.S. government at the Bay of pigs, others argue that the blame for the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba.
Some researchers believe that the origins of the crisis need to search two years earlier when in may 1960 in the skies over Sverdlovsk was shot down an American spy plane U-2 and its pilot, Francis powers, was captured. This incident disrupted the return visit of U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower in the USSR. Despite the fact that confessions of an American pilot was published, Eisenhower refused to apologize for this episode, seriously damaged relations with Khrushchev.
Another factor that prepared the Soviet-American crisis, it is possible to consider the Berlin question. The GDR has repeatedly complained of numerous provocations and violations of the border between East and West Berlin by the representatives of the capitalist camp. The solution to this problem was the beginning of construction on 13 August 1961 45-kilometer-long Berlin wall, which almost led to armed conflict between the two occupational sectors.
American researcher Raymond Garthoff believes that the idea of accommodation in Cuba the Soviet nuclear Arsenal emerged from Khrushchev in April 1962, what was the reaction of the Secretary General on the report of defense Minister Rodion Malinovsky on the deployment of us nuclear facilities in Turkey. According to other sources, for the first time this idea came to Fidel Castro.
within the research community there is a perception that the American administration, introducing the embargo and other restrictions against Cuba, deliberately pushed Havana to Moscow. Why? To provoke the Soviet Union to incite war hysteria, thus justifying the increase in expenditure on the arms race and the deployment of their missiles stillz Soviet borders.
as the tension grew, the Soviet leadership grew stronger the idea of the transfer to Cuba of ballistic missiles of average range. In his memoirs, Khrushchev says that for the first time this idea had occurred to him during his official visit to Bulgaria in mid-may 1962. According to Khrushchev, then one of his companions pointed towards Turkey, adding that U.S. rockets can fly to the industrial areas of the USSR for 15 minutes.
Discussion on this topic was held on 18 may 1962 by the Council of defense, after six days, the idea of placing missiles became the agenda of the meeting of the General staff, and appears to have received universal approval. Only required to obtain the consent of Fidel Castro. For these purposes, to Cuba arrived the delegation headed by Marshal Sergei Turquoise. Experts believe that all the issues were settled on the day of the delegation’s arrival – may 29, 1962. It is likely that the Cuban missile crisis was merely a pretext for placing of missiles close to the enemy. The USSR would realize it anyway.
In the regime of extreme secrecy
the operation for the transfer of Soviet missiles in Cuba was code-named “Anadyr”. The name of this river, located in the extreme North of the USSR, was the intention of the Kremlin to knock the Americans off. And had to hide what: several dozen rockets and more than 40 thousand soldiers who had come to Cuba undetected.
it looked as if the Soviet ships moving in the Arctic: to the plausibility of the crews were supplied with skis and coats. To prevent leakage of information about the goals of the expedition on the ships, no one knew. The captains was given a secret package that they had to open just after crossing Gibraltar.
Many researchers wonder why the operation for the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba was carried out in the regime of extreme secrecy? After all, the Americans has made no secret of being under Turkish Izmir fifteen medium-range missiles PGM-19 “Jupiter” with a range of up to 2400 km, which threatened the entire European part of the Soviet Union.
Obviously, the Soviet leadership was aware that the Pentagon, under any pretext will not allow the placing of deadly weapons in a few hundred kilometers from their borders. According to scout Alexander Shitov, Khrushchev repeatedly stressed the importance of secrecy of the operation, the Americans discovered the missiles before they are deployed. Indeed, when the White house got the first pictures of the Soviet launching pads in Cuba aimed at Washington, there experienced a real shock.
Khrushchev, speaking at a meeting of the 15th UN General Assembly in October 1960, proved to their opponents that the imposition of an arms race will come to them sideways: “We do not want it, but not afraid. We can beat them!”. The Soviet leader was convinced that the missiles on Soviet factories go the same speed as the sausage. Bluffing whether Khrushchev, given that the USA might not know the actual number of nuclear weapons in the USSR and its capabilities?
it is Already known that at the beginning of the Cuban missile crisis the United States had more than 6,000 warheads, whereas in the USSR there are barely 300 units. Almost three times faster than Americans and the number of strategic bombers capable of carrying nuclear warheads, as well as strike aircraft carriers (in the USSR there was not one). Moscow surpassed Washington in the number of nuclear submarines – 25 to 7.
Despite the fact that the Pentagon was determined to strike at the Soviet Union, the American leadership realized that the U.S. does not have a developed civil defense system. Even if a small part of the 164 Soviet warheads located in Cuba, hit the target, not to avoid global devastation and mass casualties. Whoever started the war in the autumn of 1962, to win a clear victory over the enemy it is unlikely to be found.
© Russian SEMyerka
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