History 29/01/20 Who in Russia did not pay tribute to the Golden Horde
In the years 1237-1242 troops of Batu Khan during the campaign in the West has won almost all of Eastern Europe. After the loss of sovereignty of the Russian principalities, like other conquered lands, began to pay tribute to the Golden Horde. It was not until 1480. Many historians estimate the tax burden of the Horde in different ways. Some sources claim that the burden of the Horde taxes were too heavy a load for the Russian peasants. Other experts, however, believe the size of the Horde Dani is quite adequate.
Overlaid almost all
The first mention of the collection of taxes in favor of the Mongol khans dated 1245 year. In the Novgorod annals, the historians have found the following lines: “And actose in number, and on on them a tribute of imati”. We are talking about the census of the population of Russia, organized by the conquerors, to determine the number of people subject to taxation. Such statistical calculations, the Mongols held all of the principalities soon after the establishment of his power.
the Several years it took representatives of the Golden Horde, to regulate the collection of tribute. Not without excesses, of course. Residents protested, staged the uprising, killing Baskakov – tax collectors. But these popular revolts were suppressed at times by the princes, not wishing to incur the wrath of the Mongols. At the end of the XIII century the entire population of Russia was converted and in the local principalities, the Mongols created a tax district 43 (darkness).
it is Noteworthy that before the Mongol invasion most Russians have not paid any taxes. So the discontent of people was great. The only class that tax innovations were not affected, it was the clergy. In all conquered countries the descendants of Genghis Khan sought to achieve the loyalty of the clergy, regardless of their religion – this was the policy.
at First, experiencing a shortage of personnel, the Mongols entrusted collection Danand the Russian principalities to the farmers. As a rule, rich people contributed to the Treasury of the Golden Horde a certain amount and in exchange received the right to taxation of the population of a particular territory. But this practice proved to be wrong. Greedy tax farmers almost robbed the inhabitants of Russia, provoking riots. Therefore, in the beginning of XIV century the collection of tribute was entrusted by the princes.
the Main tax levied by the conquerors, was the so-called “tribute” (the exit). It paid the peasants and artisans. Initially, the size of this tax amounted to one tenth of the income of each family and was paid in food and goods. For example, Novgorod could give the Horde Baskakov as silver, and skins of Martens. But soon the natural solution was replaced by its cash equivalent.
we Know that in 1275 the people of the North-East of Russia every year were forced to pay the rulers of the Golden Horde on pelegrine with each of the plow (that is, peasant farms, household plots). And silver the national currency at that time weighed 150-200 g. it Turns out that one family annually gave the Mongols 75-100 g of silver. Not so little, but the excessive tax burden will not be called.
Dealers of all kinds paid Tamga. That’s the name of this tribute was Russian word “customs”. It is noteworthy that this tax could be charged with both capital and annual turnover of each individual merchant. The size of the Mongol Tamga does not go to any comparison with modern rates of trade taxes, excise taxes and fees. Obviously, the rulers of the Golden Horde sought to support business activity in the areas they conquered.
Judge for yourself. Merchants from Persia and Central Asia with each of 240 dinars of its capital had to pay to the Mongolian Treasury 1 Dinar. But if Tamga was charged with trafficking, it was varied in the range of 3-5%, depending on the geographical location of a particular city and the presence there of the busiest trade routes.
Given the security merchants, the taxes are not calculated in silver, as with peasants and artisans, and gold. Influential oligarchs of the time were taxed individually, as representatives of small and average business paid Tamga collectively, joining together in Association.
in Addition to the above two taxes, which constituted the main portion of all proceeds of the Golden Horde, the Mongols had many others. So, the maintenance of post stations with horses, was charged holes. Later from this word is formed the name of a street service.
the people of Russia also had to accept the Khan’s ambassadors. They were provided with “food” – tools for personal needs and the contents of confidants. Of course, I welcomed the offering of various gifts of the influential representatives of the Golden Horde.
Each Prince, going to the headquarters of Khan, brought with them not only collected silver and gold, and valuable things, luxury items destined for the ruler, his counselors and relatives.
in Itself is a Turkic word tuzghu means “gifts and offerings arrived”. In the Novgorod annals there is such a record: “And there was great tumult in Novgorod, when the damned Tatars gathered Tusk and caused a lot of evil people in rural areas”. These dramatic events are dated 1259.
As found by historians, the year before the Novgorodians rebelled, not wanting to participate in the census: people understand that as soon as their number will be counted, will begin the collection of tribute. Then the Mongols went to Novgorod to take Tusk force and punish the rebels.
from time to Time with the Russian principalities were going to “requests” for various needs. Usually it was about the financing of military operations, often perpetrated by the Mongol army, together with princely retinues.
For the opportunity not to send sons recruits in the Mongolian army, their parents paid cULus.
according to historians, multiplying the amount of taxes to the population of Russia, every year the Mongol-Tatar yoke has cost the residents of all the local principalities around 12-14 thousand rubles, which was approximately equal to 1.5 tons of silver.
This is relatively little, because the Mongols conquered the Chinese province gave three times more income. And the southern Empire of the sun paid off from possible raids, paying annually to the Mongols 7.5 tons of silver, and sending the whole caravans of camels loaded with silk fabrics. In other words, the taxes of China exceeded 12 tonnes of the precious metal. However, the celestial Empire had in those years was noticeably crowded other countries.
speaking of separate principalities, the amount varied depending on the population and many other circumstances. So, in the middle of the XIV century Vladimir land each year was paid to the Mongols 5 thousand rubles, and the Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod Principality – 1.5 thousand rubles. Novgorod and Tver lands were given 2 thousand; Moscow – 1 280 rubles.
For comparison: at that time the city of Astrakhan (Charitarian), through which a lively trade between East and West was annually paid into the Treasury of the Horde 60 thousand Altyn, which is the equivalent of 1 800 rubles.
so, the Mongol tribute was significant, but not overwhelming. Besides, the Russian principalities were often delayed payments, the local population rebelled. And in the second half of the XV century, when the Golden Horde began to lose its military power, Russian money has not been received in the budget of the conquerors.
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