Another 29/01/20 Which gene makes a man a killer
Forcing in a stressful situation it beat faster organic biologically active substances adrenaline and noradrenaline, mobilizing the organism to eliminate the threat, researchers are often referred to as hormones, generating “killer instinct”.
What is it?
And the adrenaline, and noradrenaline belong to the group of catecholamines formed from amino acids were phenylalanyl, which under the action of a specific enzyme turns the amino acid tyrosine. That it includes among other substances contains DOPA, which is a required element for the formation of dopamine, which, under the influence of vitamin C involved in the reaction of hydroxylation will be converted into the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Stanislav Kornienko the article “Chemistry of emotions” points out that in a shock situation, the body triggers an alternative way of producing these hormones, “predator”, from the hypothalamus into the blood begins to flow corticotropin, which, reaching the adrenal glands, starts the synthesis of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Concentration of these hormones in the blood is directly proportional to the level of danger and stress, the location of the person, the greater the anxiety the greater their secretion, increasing to whom burns, trauma, nervous tension and boundary States.
Experiments in which animals have removed the adrenal medulla, showed that not having the ability to generate epinephrine and norepinephrine, subjects lose their ability to counter threats.
Referred to as the stress hormone adrenaline in a matter of Mili seconds helps the body to Orient the face of danger, allowing the person to make decisions quickly and dulling the feeling of pain when injured. Blocking the effects of shock, adrenaline by narrowing the blood vessels, improves muscle tone, giving the opportunity of personality in extreme siof the situation to increase running speed, increase endurance or to lift a lot of weight.
effectively Helps to adapt to the danger, the adrenaline enhances mental energy levels and physical activity, showing pronounced anti-inflammatory and antiallergic action.
to Characterize the response of the body to release adrenaline may be the phrase: “hit and run”.
as for noradrenaline, the slogan has a more aggressive sound: “Attack and defend”, because, giving the body a powerful mobilizing effect, it causes a feeling of rage, anger, fury, tyranny and courage.
Psychologist Patricia Sanchez Seisdedos notes that causing extra conversion functions aimed at optimizing the interaction of the organism with the environment in an emergency, norepinephrine can act both as a hormone and as neurotransmitter.
It is a biologically active substance gives a person a feeling of confidence and pushes him to the performance of certain risky actions, increasing his psychological stability and physical strength.
Produced as needed and disappearing immediately after the dissipation of the shock, norepinephrine organism adapt to stressful situations, facilitating the search for solution is not only extreme, but also everyday tasks.
In contrast to adrenaline, the main physiological effect of norepinephrine is vasoconstriction and increase blood pressure.
Suppressing the feeling of fear, causing a burst of energy and increasing degree of aggression, norepinephrine is produced intensively with stress, bleeding and heavy physical work.
If human blood is fixed with a high level of norepinephrine, the parallel marked decline in his analytical abilities and visual concentration. In this case, the brain begins to confuse real and imagined events, and that’s why gamers are excited to continue methodicalbut to squander money in casinos.
the Average amount of this hormone in the blood contributes to a positive perception of reality, the General vigor of the body and good mood.
Lack of noradrenaline puts the person into apathy, boredom and even a deep depression out of which is possible only with the help of vitamins containing iron, zinc, manganese, søren and copper. In addition to increase the level of norepinephrine can be a natural action as extreme or watching a horror movie.
Noteworthy is the fact that in nature norepinephrine is a large amount produced in the adrenal glands of predators (tigers, lions) and almost completely absent from their alleged victims (Guinea pigs, rabbits).
Despite the obvious relationship and a similar effect on the body hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline, however, have some fundamental differences.
it is Worth noting that after the jump in the concentration of adrenaline a person feels a sense of euphoria, which is not the case when released into the blood norepinephrine.
Despite the fact that both of these hormones can cause trembling of the chin and extremities known as tremor, only adrenaline stimulates secretion of biologically active substances of the anterior pituitary.
Thanks to adrenaline in humans, there is a rise only in systolic (upper heart) pressure, while norepinephrine helps to increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance.
in addition vasoconstrictor effect coming from the effects of noradrenaline is higher than adrenaline, though the duration is twice as long.
There is not yet a confirmed assumption that the release of adrenaline into the blood takes place under forced circumstances, and a surge of norepinephrine is fixed upon the voluntary engagement of himself in an extreme situation.
in Other words, if a person is afraid of water, but deliberately walks into the sea to overcome itsth fear and swim, it will increase norepinephrine, but if its for fun violently thrown into the water, he tipped the scales adrenaline.
the Genes of criminals
the Swedish scientists from the Karolinska Institute, analyzed the genes of 895 Finnish prisoners, found a surprising pattern – all criminals convicted of the most serious crimes, identified the mutated gene for the enzyme monoamine oxidase A MAOA.
Often this variation of MAOA, causing pathological aggression, called the “criminal gene” and it is found in the X chromosome. The girls have two such chromosomes, are less likely to become “natural born criminals” than boys who have only one choice.
in addition to the study was identified one such gene – a kind cadherin 13 (CDH13), which causes the individual to commit extremely violent acts.
By the way, new Zealand scientists conducted their own research, came to the conclusion that these genes are criminals though are innate, but aktiviziruyutsya and result in aggression only when there is a traumatic experience.
© Russian Seven
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