History 08/01/20 What words guaranteed life of the red army at the surrender of
the Second world war is remembered not only for the millions of victims among the soldiers of warring armies, but also a significant number of prisoners. For the two protagonists of this unprecedented global contractions – the Soviet and German figures captured was also seven figures. The circumstances of hits in the hands of the enemy was very different, including the voluntary addition of weapons.
the Tragedy of Soviet prisoners of war soldiers
Accurate information about the number of Soviet prisoners of war, until now no one has. Data from different sources in the range 4.5 to 5.5 million. The greatest number of red army soldiers were taken prisoner in 1941, according to some – more than 3 million people.
Their fate was predetermined in many cases, the Fuehrer and his henchmen, who demanded the destruction even of surrendered Soviet soldiers. Survivors were forced into various camps, where cleaning, in accordance with the Directive of 6 June 1941 “Commissar” with the aim of identifying and further destruction of political officers and Jews, continued.
However, the red army soldiers insistently “invited” captured leaflets with the slogan “kill the Jew-political leader, mug asks for a brick!”, released only in the first months of war sold more than 160 million copies, with attached the “gaps” (“Ausweis” or “Passierschein”). In the course were also German leaflets with the acronym S. V. Z. (“Bayonets in the ground”) also guarantee the red fighters (except Commissars and Jews), as a minimum, life. Also surrendering Soviet soldiers were guaranteed security and a warm welcome, if they are to shout “Stalin kaput!”.
However, Robert Kershaw, a British historian, in his book, composed almost entirely of memoirs, letters home, notes in the diaries of soldiers of the Wehrmacht Eastern front “1941 year the eyes of the Germans. Birch crosses instead of iron” was noted by the desperate resistance of the Russians, comes “at times to fanaticism”.
the Number of German prisoners has grown every year
of Course, in the first months of the war in the background of the military successes of the German prisoners was just miserable and can not be compared with similar losses of the red army (just a little over 9 thousand people). But, in 1942, their number exceeded 71 thousand. And only at Stalingrad, they were taken prisoner, about 100 thousand people According to data published in the book “German prisoners in the USSR” written by R. Kozlova In Marchesini S., just war was taken prisoner 2 388 443 soldiers of the Wehrmacht.
Soviet propaganda leaflets, is also equipped with a pass in turn upon the surrender of the Nazis in the prisoner offered to shout: “farewell to Moscow, down with Hitler”. But, more accustomed habitual in war the slogan of the surrendering of the Germans: “Hitler kaput!”. And according to A. A. Lebedev (book “Their weapon – the film camera”) in the Stalingrad cauldron the Germans gave up with cries of “Unsere Soldaten Hende Hoh! Hitler kaput, nicht shissen”.
after Stalingrad, Kursk, other victories of the red army soldiers of the Wehrmacht preferred to go into captivity, having the leaflets in the gaps with excerpts from Joseph Stalin’s order No. 55, which denied the identification of “Hitler’s clique with the German people.” Law-abiding Germans, after the order of surrender from above, surrendered by entire units and subunits of the organized and followed in the rear with minimal escort, and that without it (Adam V. “Catastrophe on the Volga”. Memoirs of adjutant of Paulus).
however, and Soviet, and German sides was absolutely sober understanding that no leaflets-pass, no recommended slogans are not any serious guarantee of safety in surrender alone. Especially, it concerned the red army soldiers who often shot on the spot. When the Germans surrendered units, armies, security guarantees have been sufficient.
© Russian Seven
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