What the soldiers of Russia, the Cossacks fought against Russian

History 18/02/20 In which the soldiers of the Russian Cossacks fought against the Russian

the Cossacks as a community appeared due to Russia. But not always they were her subjects. Free nature and the vicissitudes of history, at times forced them to fight against our country.

In the first Romanovs: from the Crimean and the poles against Russia

the Cossack community was originally formed as skeptical in relation to Muscovy (as well as to the other powers of the region). Originally Cossacks were runaway criminals, serfs, or simply adventurers, who fled from the power of the States to free land in search of freedom. The process of turning Cossacks into loyal defenders of Russia took more than a century. For example, in XVI-XVII centuries, when the Sich was geopolitically significant space, its interaction with other countries was quite pragmatic. The Cossacks were those who will pay more, and mostly Pro-Russian force today, they seem to be due to the fact that often the most generous their sponsors were the kings of Moscow.

often, However, I bought the Cossacks and the poles. In 1572 the king of the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Sigismund II created “the Army of his Royal grace Zaporizhzhya”. Join first 500, then 600 of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, which on a standalone basis became part of the army of the Commonwealth. These units participated in the Polish intervention during the time of Troubles. And in the beginning of XVII century they were guarding the South-Eastern border of the country from both the Turks and Tatars, and Russian. And in the middle of XVII century the Zaporozhye Cossacks began to shift to the service of Moscow.

Contracts between the first Romanovs and Zaporozhye meant not only a fee for the service, but also Russian non-interference in the internal Affairs of the camp. Of course, an important reason for the orientation to Moscow was and religion: the values of Orthodoxy stood for the Cossacks not in last place. But ifand the king ceased to pay the money, the Cossacks did not have to help his enemies. For example, in 1693 Zaporozhye made peace with the Crimeans, stating the fact that the king pays more the don army and attempts to interfere in the internal Affairs of the host.

In the Russian Empire: in the service of the Ottoman Empire and Sweden

Peter I belonged to the Cossacks bad. First and foremost, thanks to the traitor Mazepa. This man, a terrible schemer and an egoist, became Hetman (in fact, the ruler of all that time in Ukraine) with the support of the Russian army, and personally Prince Vasily Golitsyn, with whom he became friends during the Crimean campaigns. Educated and charismatic Mazepa was fascinated by not only the commander, but the young Tsar Peter, who at the beginning of his reign, heed all the advice of the Hetman. Over the 20 years of the Ukraine, Mazeppa became a respected, influential and very rich man. But he wanted more, so in the midst of a severe Northern war, he betrayed the Russian Tsar, who believed his close friend and ally. Zaporozhye Cossacks followed him and participated in many of the Russian-Swedish battles. Russia was able to deal with the Swedes and Cossacks, and the traitor was excommunicated from the Church and shamefully executed. Peter hated Mazepa and the Cossacks, and even ordered to destroy all images of Hetman.

After Peter the relationship between Russia and the Cossacks were strained. Petersburg they did not complain and after the victories over the Turks already do not need them. In 1775 the Cossacks dared to threaten the Empress Catherine II: if it does not comply with their demands on the allocation of additional land Sich, the Cossacks will be sworn in Turkey. In response, Catherine destroyed the Sich. The Cossacks were offered quite reasonable terms of lifestyle changes: the upper ranks were assigned a title of nobility, and the lower was invited to join the cavalry troops of the Russian army. The Cossacks agreed, the other could not and therefore left their native steppes in search of a place where they can continue to live in the Cossack.

in the early eighteenth century to twreckon the Danube river in modern Romania and Moldova, formed the community of the Cossacks, who moved to the Turks because of unresolved disputes with the Russian leadership. And after the destruction of the Zaporozhian Sich in the same places and moved many Cossacks. The Turkish Sultan had guaranteed to the Cossacks autonomy, allowing them to their way of life and not restrict their religious plan in exchange for the border guards at the border with Russia. And nekrasovtsy Cossacks participated in the war of 1787-1791 on the side of the Turks. After these events, Turkish Cossacks a lot has happened: some of them betrayed Turkey and were returning to the oath of Russia, others they were punished for it. Eventually the remnants of the Cossacks, who remained loyal to Turkey, the Ottoman government scattered around the country.

Of these, in 1854, a Polish revolutionary in exile Mikhail Tchaikovsky creates “Slavic Legion” (about 800 people), which is not very successfully fought against Russia in the Crimean war.

In the XX century: the Ukrainian nationalists and Nazi collaborators

the Independent Ukraine that emerged after the February revolution, boasted their Cossack past. Skoropadsky called himself the Hetman, and the army of the Ukrainian Republic, which had fought against the Bolsheviks with the support of Germany, was divided into Cossack Cauchy. A large number of these Cossacks in those days fought against Russia. It should be noted that the Zaporozhye Cossacks fought against the Ukraine: the red army and Makhno.

20 years after these events, the Cossacks again fought against Bolshevik Russia. The Cossacks, as one of the most counter-revolutionary groups in the Russian society, inherited from the Bolsheviks. Perhaps that is why among the Cossacks were many people who welcomed the Nazis and swore to them.

for 22 August 1941, the Nazis transferred the first part of the Cossack. During the occupation of Ukraine and Kuban on the side of the Nazis passed a certain number of Cossacks. Some of them fought in the Cossack formations, which was headed by Krasnov, others in Russian and Ukrainiancal national groups.

Alexander Artamonov

© Russian Seven

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