What territory, the allies tried to take Russia in the Civil war

History 02/02/20 Any territory, the allies tried to take Russia in the Civil war

After the October revolution of 1917 in Russia, the UK, France and the United States there were two main concerns in relation to large decaying state. First – to avoid crossing a significant part of it under the control of Germany or Germany’s allies. The second is to support the new government formation, which could be used in the war against Germany.

the Entente against the “one and indivisible Russia”

against the White movement, which from the beginning advocated the gathering of Russia and a continuation of Russia’s war against Germany, the policy of the Entente was evasive. Expressing their sympathies to him, the Western powers did not rush to help him. The white army was never in contact with the armies of Germany and her allies, or prefer to leave them. But the allies did not seek to overthrow Soviet government in Central Russia.

As he confessed in his memoirs, the then Prime Minister of great Britain David Lloyd George, “we only cared about that vast and fertile territory of the Russian Empire became a vassal of the Central powers and their source of supply in this war. Not our business to decide if they prefer the Russians to be ruled Lenin or Kerensky”. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson declared that “any attempt to intervene in Russia without the consent of the Soviet government will become a movement to overthrow the Soviet government for the restoration of tsarism.”

When in November 1918 the Kaiser’s Germany capitulated and began the withdrawal of its troops from the occupied areas of the former Russian Empire, the Entente no longer needed in the White movement as a possible factor in world war II. The slogan “United and indivisible Russia” put forward by the white guard command, frightened politicians of the West prospect of the restoration of the Russian Empire as a dangerous competitor. The Bolsheviks it seemed even less dangerous – no one believed in the strength of their power and that they will be able to consolidate strong power.

Therefore, in respect of any Russia – red, white and strategy of the Entente included non-interference in the civil war at maximum any future weakening of Russia by splitting off from her outlying States.

the Entente Intervention in the Ukraine and the Caucasus

In article 12 of the Compiegne armistice that ended the First world war on 11 November 1918, contained an important provision. The withdrawal of Germany and its allies from the territories of the former Russian Empire had to be implemented immediately, but “when the allies decide that the time has come, taking into account the internal state of these territories.”

In essence, this meant that there must occur under the control of the allies, the puppet government. These areas were not supposed to get not only the Bolsheviks but also the whites. The allies rejected demands of the commander of the white Armed forces of South Russia (VSYUR) General Anton Denikin to carry out the carriage by sea to Ukraine, where he left the Kaiser’s troops, Russian white guard troops. Attempts to create a civil administration, the armed forces of South Russia in Odessa in winter 1918/19 year, was also dramatically suppressed by command of the French interventionist forces. Similarly, England did not allow representatives of Denikin’s administration in the Caucasus, where he supported the local “independent” state.

Memorandum for Colonel house: “Russia is a blank sheet of paper”

In a sufficiently clear manner the views of the then US administration on the “Russian question” was expressed in a memo, President Wilson and his Advisor on foreign policy issues, Colonel Edward House. This note was drawn up shortly before the surrender of Imperial Germany in November 1918.

the basis for the postwar reconstruction of the Western powers to declaratively put the principle of “self-determination of Nations”. “Is the concept of “Russian the territory” is synonymous with the territory used to belong to the Russian Empire?” asked house and said, “it is Clear that this is not so.” One of the conditions of peace is the restoration of an independent Poland. “There is a recognition of the right for the poles will certainly have to recognize and correct for the Finns, Lithuanians, Latvians, and may be for Ukrainians.” Further, the house was called upon to consider the Caucasus “as part of the problem of the Turkish Empire”, not Russian, and to control Central Asia, “to provide some power limited mandate”.

“Before the peace conference would lay a clean sheet of paper on which to write policy for all the peoples of the former Russian Empire”, – summed up the adviser to the President of the United States. Without the participation of the representatives of the Russian people, it is necessary to add, as neither the Bolsheviks nor the whites to participate in it to prevent not planned.

Kolchak the Recognition of the independence of the Baltic, Transcaucasian and Central Asian States at the request of the Entente

18 November 1918, overthrowing the democratic anti-Soviet government in Omsk was captured by Admiral Kolchak, prior to this more than a year spent in the US and the UK in close contacts with representatives of the highest political spheres.

may 26, 1919, the Supreme Council of the Entente (which included the chief Executive and the foreign Ministers of the five powers – Britain, France, USA, Japan and Italy) sent Kolchak a formal requirement to perform several political conditions. Among them was the recognition of independence not only for Poland and Finland, but actually existing national governments in the Baltic States, Central Asia and the Caucasus, as well as the accession of Bessarabia to Romania. In addition, Kolchak had to agree to the arbitration of the League of Nations in determining the future borders of Russia.

the Entente Powers motivated by their claims that their adoption of Kolchak will be able to assure the public opinion of the West in their democraticallyx purposes. Only in this case they promised to officially recognize Kolchak as the “Supreme ruler of Russia” and establish formal diplomatic relations. 3 June 1919, Kolchak announced the acceptance of all these conditions. However, he stipulated final compliance sanction “of the future Constituent Assembly”, but this reservation was made only to appease the Russian patriots. A full recognition from the Entente still did not follow.

Yaroslav Butakov

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