Weapons 30/01/20 What supertanki built in the Soviet Union before the war
When it comes to super-heavy tanks, usually remember the German “Maus”, which for some reason is called only embodied in the metal machine of this class. This is completely wrong, prototypes of heavy tanks created by the Germans and the British and the Americans. And in France a machine of this class commercially available.
as for the Soviet Union, we have 30 years produced the largest series of military vehicles of this class.
First, please specify what tanks are considered heavy. Usually heavy tanks are those that are more heavy. That is, there is only a lower bound on the weight, size and armament. And it is very vague. Moreover, in the period between the world wars, military technology has developed quite quickly, and those machines that at the end of 20 years seemed powerful by the end of the 30’s hopelessly outdated.
a Vivid example is the French tank Char de rupture 2C. For its time, this 10-foot machine weighing more than 70 tons, with 75-mm cannon in the turret and 45 mm frontal armor was the most powerful tank in the world. The French planned to release a series of three hundred machines, but the war ended and they were limited to ten. And good, because by the beginning of the Second World war, these tanks had no combat value.
super-Heavy tanks, considering all the projects were so different that they themselves can be divided into two groups. One classify those which might be produced and used in combat, and another will get those who are useless already at the stage of design, because to build them in series and apply impossible. Typically, these include projects of various supergiants.
the Soviet super heavy tanks began to create at the turn of the 30-ies. In the “System tank weapons of the red army” they were called “powerful tanks special purpose”. All projects are tanks of this type was a multi-turret machine with a large number of cannons and machine guns. The first project, T-30, was a 55-ton machine with 76-mm long-barreled cannon in the main tower. Upstairs the main tower was located in another tower with a 37 mm cannon. However, the military this project seemed too weak.
More powerful projects was the “sharashka” under the name “Auto-tank diesel Department of the Economic Department of the OGPU” and the German engineer Grotte, developed the Soviet tanks at the invitation of the Soviet government. Both projects were similar, each had a similar layout with the main tower in the center and four smaller turrets front and rear. TP-1 (“breakthrough Tank first”) weighed 75 tons, the frontal armor of 45 mm. TG-5 (“tank Grotte fifth”) had a mass of about 100 tons and the armor of 70 mm. Weapons both machines consisted of a 107-mm guns and two 37-mm or 45-mm guns in the front towers. The rear turret machine-gun, and Grotte wanted to make them anti-aircraft.
it was Proposed quite incredible projects weighing hundreds of tons and guns up to 305 mm.
as a result, was chosen a modest, but real project of the T-35, which, though weighed a little over 50 tons, and had armor up to 70 mm (a modernized version), but was released a series of 59 cars. Unfortunately, in the great Patriotic war tank to show themselves could not. And is already obsolete, and worn out all the machines were pretty.
In the late 30-ies in the Soviet Union again started to design super-heavy tanks. T-100 and SMK (“Sergei Mironovich Kirov”) are not just built but tested in the war with the Finns.
In 1940 a project was developed for the tank, that is “Joseph Stalin”. Nothing in common except the name adopted by the 43-44 years of heavy tanks is-1 and is-2, this machine had. Mass is the IP of the sample of 1940 — 70 tons frontal armor up to 100 mm. Armament was the 152-mm gun and three machine guns in small turrets. Two machine-gun tower was located in the front of the machine, and trata on the dome of the main tower and could fire at aircraft. Why the project has not received further development is unclear. In 1941 work began on the tank KV-4, whose characteristics were close to ISU: about 100 tons, the armor is about 100 mm and is armed with 107-mm and 45-mm guns. All experts agree that the KV-4 could be run in series and would be very effective. Work on the tank have prevented the war.
the Most mysterious of the projects of 1940 was a tank overhead, which means “Vladimir Lenin”. The available information but it is extremely contradictory. It is mentioned that it was planned in three versions, from 260 to 460 tons. Service in the main tower 130-mm guns to guns with a caliber of 305 mm. two Additional 45-mm or 76-mm guns in the front towers. Booking up to 125 mm. the Chassis consisted of four tracks. For transportation by rail, the tank was broken down into five parts.
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