History 21/02/20 What secret cities existed in the USSR
in the Soviet Union were such cities, about whom nobody knew and whose residents are in conversations with “outsiders” were forced to specify a fake place of residence. The appearance of the first Soviet closed cities was associated with the development of new types of weapons. Many of them still have the status of ZATO (closed administrative-territorial entities).
the first and Most secret
a Secret settlement with a special regime – the invention not of the Soviet state machine. The first area of this type appeared in the UK in 1915 because of the opening of the border between England and Scotland of a plant for the production of cordite (smokeless gunpowder). In early 1943, a private settlement was organized in the United States in the town of Los Alamos in connection with the launch of the Manhattan project (the code name of the US program to develop nuclear weapons).
In the USSR the formation of the first closed city was also due to the beginning of the creation of the atomic bomb. The Soviet Union lagged behind in this military question from the United States. But thanks to the efforts of intelligence agents in America and Britain, the Soviet leadership received the necessary data for the necessity of catching up.
11 February 1943, adopted a resolution of the State defense Committee of the USSR on the start of practical work on the creation of a nuclear bomb. Initially work under the direction of I. Kurchatov was conducted in a secret Laboratory No. 2 of the Academy of Sciences (now the Institute of atomic energy. I. V. Kurchatova).
After the American bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet Union has intensified its activities in the nuclear field. This required to build a particular object that were located far from the capital or other major cities.
At the beginning of 1946, the place for such object was found. April 9, 1946, adopted a resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on organization Designcharskogo Bureau (KB) in the Laboratory No. 2 of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the town of Sarov in the Gorki oblast, near St. Seraphim nunnery in Diveevo. In early 1947 KB-11 (later the town of Arzamas-16) received the status of a special regime of enterprises. Here was created the first Soviet atomic bomb, tested in 1949.
What there was still a closed city
Over time, the number of closed cities in the Soviet Union increased. They emerged around the critical facilities, including research institutes and enterprises for the production of various types of weapons.
the Major facilities of the nuclear industry was located, in addition to Arzamas-16, Sverdlovsk-44, which still produce highly enriched uranium needed to produce nuclear weapons at the Chelyabinsk-65, specializing in the development of radioactive isotopes; in Snezhinsk, where was born the most powerful thermonuclear bomb “kuzkina mother”.
In the 1950s, the Soviet Union, concerned with production in the West of biological weapons, begins the study of the effects of its application on the basis established in 1954, the research Institute of sanitation of the Ministry of defense of the USSR. Subsequently, there was established the industrial production of the Soviet biological weapon based on smallpox. Here were developed and vaccines against the most dangerous diseases, including Ebola.
the most important closed military facilities of the USSR can be attributed to the Gabala radar station in Azerbaijan, the task of which consisted in warning about a nuclear missile strike.
What was attractive life in the closed city
In cities with a special regime and life was special. They couldn’t find on the map, and the name they received on a certain principle: the name of one of the nearby settlements were added special number.
the crossing mode of secret objects was strict. For example, scientists who worked in KB-11 until the mid-1950s, was able to go from your city only on official business.
the Extent of secretosti cities was uneven. Some of them only allowed employees of local businesses and living with them family members. Today BUT in a permissive manner can visit other relatives of employees, and sometimes open them for other people.
due to the special regime of closed cities, their residents had to endure some inconvenience. However, this was offset by the salary increments, as well as creating more favorable conditions than usual in Soviet cities. There existed all the necessary infrastructure was available scarce products. In addition, the crime rate in these cities was lower.
© Russian Seven
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