History 28/12/19 What scientists from the USSR to Germany took Hitler
After 1945 in the Soviet Union employed thousands of German scientists who have made significant contributions to the Soviet nuclear project and the space program. However, few people know that the Third Reich also used the work of Soviet scientists evacuated from the occupied territories.
the Export of Russian “brains”
the Nazis treated the captured regions of the Soviet Union first of all as raw material base and source of cheap (if not free) labor. Science has been the strength of the “Aryans.” However, in the pre-war years, Germany suffered from “fleeing brains”. The third Reich left scientists-Jews (e.g. albert Einstein), and their fellow Germans, who did not accept Nazi ideology. So completely ignore the intellectual resources of the Soviet Union, the invaders could not. On the practice of the mass export of Soviet scientists reported in an article about the geologist Leonid Smirnov, published in the biographical dictionary “Russian North America”.
“the Germans have taken from Kislovodsk large group of scientists and engineers in Germany. This group included Smirnov,” says the source.
the details of this event in the historical literature are not covered. However, it can be assumed that the Germans were interested in scholars working in areas that had been developed in Germany. The same Smirnov in his time he participated in expeditions for oil exploration in the Arctic regions of Siberia. In Kislovodsk he was being evacuated from Leningrad, where he worked as a Professor of the Mining Institute. Hitler, as we know, were looking for a reliable source of oil for the army. It is not excluded that Smirnova was going to involve the geological survey of Norway. However, the first rig in this country is earned via many years after the departure of the invaders in 1971.
Where and on what terms scientists worked, BXodessie in the “Kislovodsk” group is unknown. However, no “friend” similar to those that existed in the Gulag in Germany was not.
Revealing the fate of the outstanding genetics of Nikolay Timofeev-Ressovsky became the “defector” in 1937. Being officially on the passport of a Soviet citizen, he war years lived and worked in the suburbs of Berlin, heading the Department of genetics and Biophysics of the Institute of brain research.
Even if the Soviet scientists did not have jobs, they still had the opportunity to work at scientific institutions. For example, an employee of the Kiev Geological Institute Evgeny Alexandrov, “evacuated” in the fall of 1943, Germany had the office of the librarian of the chemical Institute.
the Germans had not only “techies” and “naturalists”, but also researchers in the Humanities. However, the latter was seen primarily as propagandists. For example, the Chechen historian Abdurahman avtorhanov (friend of the leader of the anti-Soviet rebels Hassan Israilov) prepared for the Nazis, the various reviews on the politics and history of the Caucasus. Candidate of philological Sciences, associate Professor Leo Dudin, who moved from Kiev to Berlin in 1942, became the editor of the Russian newspaper “Latest news”.
At the end of the war, the situation with employment of Soviet scientists in Germany had worsened. At this time, taken from the occupied areas of science were considered by the Germans as Ostarbeiter. This happened, for example, with Philology from Kiev University, by Tatiana Fesenko.
the post-war fate of the Soviet scientists caught in Germany, were different. Timofeev-Ressovsky, after the Red Army occupied Berlin, was sentenced to 10 years in Soviet camps. Many of his colleagues made the color of the second wave of Russian emigration. So avtorhanov and Dudin became known to Western Sovietologists. Leonid Smirnov settled in Canada, where he taught at the University of Toronto and consulted local oil producers. Tatiana Fesenko got a job at the Library of Congress. Among the Russian scientists who came to the West through Nazi Germany, it is also possible to name the biologist Konstantin Sorokin, a Professor of medicine Theodore Bogatyrchuk, historian Konstantin Steppe and others.
© Russian Seven
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