History 06/01/20 What prisoners the Americans refused to give the Soviet Union after the defeat of Germany
According to the State archive of the Russian Federation, from 1944, the year and the first half of 1952 of the American occupation zones in Germany and Austria in the USSR were repatriated over a million people. The British and Americans had different attitudes to the appropriateness of a return of prisoners at the request of the government of the Soviet Union.
How and by whom it was captured
according to British historian and writer Keith Lowe in his book “Cruel continent. Europe after the Second world war”, in WWII the Americans took over all the prisoners of war (3.8 million people), followed by the British (3.7 million). The Soviet Union, according to lo, this only closes the top three with 3.1 million. The French, according to his calculations, has captivated only about 250 thousand soldiers and officers.
By what right repatriated
a Russian historian, doctor of historical Sciences Viktor Zemskov wrote that speech on compulsory repatriation of Soviet citizens was at the Yalta conference (February 1945), which was attended by the heads of the three powers of the allies in the great Patriotic war, Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill. According to the Yalta agreement, the allies were obliged to surrender to the Soviet side of the prisoners — Soviet citizens. Those who were not (the first wave of immigrants and other persons), under repatriation did not fall.
Zemskov cites Soviet counterintelligence for the spring-summer of 1945, from which it follows that U.S. intelligence agencies had sought in their camps for the displaced Soviet citizens who could work in favor of the United States and persuaded them to stay in America. Similar “recruitment” were engaged and the British. The Americans were interested in prisoners with degrees, they were also looking for Soviet designers, technologists, engineers and other professionals. By hook or by crook these inennobling forced to move to the United States.
Changes in the differentiation
the Candidate of historical Sciences Oleg Romanko in their study cites the fact that the UK is particularly zealously pursued a policy of repatriation of prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, do not understand the differentiation of those on the “red” and “white” (for example, the mass repatriation of the Cossacks at Lienz). According to the rules followed in this case, the United States, to move to the Soviet Union followed only prisoners that have received Soviet citizenship on September 1, 1939. In this list, according to the Americans, were not Western Ukrainians and Western Belarusians and Balts.
the Americans, sorting out who should be repatriated, and some of the Soviet prisoners’t have sufficient civil rights in the end decided that the “kulaks”, “white” and “dissidents” the duty to be sent to the Soviet Union does not apply. Such an approach not liked by the Soviet side, and in the end of 1945, in particular, and under pressure from Britain, the United States adopted the Directive of Mak-Narni—Clark, defining categories of prisoners of war, due on required (if necessary forcible) repatriation to the Soviet Union.
these citizens were captured in German uniform; military personnel who served in the red army from the first day of the war and demobilized at the completion of it; the traitors who volunteered to serve the Nazis (provided that, if the Soviet side proves this fact). As did the Americans, prisoners of war, not stained, under American law, could decide their fate themselves – they go to the USSR or to stay in the West.
the Soviet Union too should have been sent
Historian Victor Zemskov said that the mandatory repatriation of prisoners of war were mutual towards the Soviet Union and the countries of the allied coalition: US, UK and France. So, from 1945 to 1946, the Soviet Union gave the US more than 21 thousand citizens of this country. During this period, employees of the intelligence revealed in the Soviet camps among Americans 52 collaboazionista who collaborated during the war with the Nazis (the French are more than 19 thousand British people – 18 people). All of them also were transferred the authorities of their countries, where Nazi collaborators were brought to trial.
© Russian Seven
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