History 20/01/20 What Newspapers I read, Soviet citizens in the German occupation
the Leadership of the Third Reich was actively using all the resources of the occupied territories – not only for labor and food, but also the media. Many Newspapers after the arrival of the Germans ceased to exist or went underground, but some continued to come out. Left still look the same, they radically changed the theme and focus of publications.
Visual memory and editorial policy
As noted in the “Condition of cultural and educational institutions in Smolensk region during the German occupation”, I. Krasilnikov, in the occupation Newspapers printed similar materials, which were prepared and then distributed to former Soviet special editions of the Berlin press Bureau. For Soviet journalists, collaborators have developed special instructions on the preparation of materials. In particular, they were forbidden to mention in the articles of those who sided with the Germans, without obtaining the consent from the defectors. Was strictly punished by the distribution of Newspapers issued for one region in another.
And if the content has changed, the appearance of publications the Germans kept, and understandably so. Soviet citizens used to believe everything you read in the Newspapers. Worked visual memory: the man took in hand the familiar “the Truth”, only in the header, instead of a call “proletarians of all countries, unite!”, read “proletarians of all countries, unite for the struggle against Bolshevism!”
Manufactured in the occupation of the newspaper was imposed on the old layout, and the “hot” materials have traditionally taken place on the front page. Posted here are the latest news: official announcements of the new government and the articles about the victories of the Third Reich. Then talked about the virtues of the “new life” and has published articles with criticism of the Soviet regime. The leitmotif of the publications was the explanation unleashed a howlus: Germany was only defending himself from the threat of the attack of the Bolsheviks that tried to convince Soviet citizens.
In January 1942, the Smolensk “New way” was released with the first strip on new year’s appeal of the Fuhrer, as well as explaining the causes of the war. Published a new year’s promise to Hitler that the new year of 1942, “will bring long-awaited victory”.
Almost each room occupying any of the Newspapers on the front page published reports from the front. It was reported that Germany is about to finish a victorious war, and it is “confirmed” stats. So, the Belgorod “Sunrise” in the beginning of March 1942 “pleased” readers not only the abolition of the collective farm system, but the destruction of Soviet tanks 78 and 134 guns for 2 days of fighting on the Eastern front. In July 1942, Pskov newspaper “For the Motherland!” a large caption announced that “again destroyed Soviet tank 562”.
On the topic of the day
the Majority of publications was tied to the region, and if it was not possible to produce a specialized press for the peasants, the military or women, relevant to the right audience, the materials tried to post on the front page.
in February 1942, front-page material “Truth” was the article on the new order of land use. Peasants “liberated by the German government from Bolshevism”, reported “long-awaited” land reform. “The collective farm system is abolished forever!” – conspicuous red header, and a new order of community farms should be be an effective transition to development of private farming. The peasants again promised the land, but the proud owners of their own plots, wrote “the Truth” could only be “capable, industrious and in all respects trustworthy peasants.” Large font, it was stressed that “all laws of the former Soviet government null and void.”
In the aforementioned July issue “For the Motherland!” of a bet made on Soviet women: “the labor slaves of Stalin” promised to freed from the “yoke of forced labour”.
Cause – time fun – an hour
the Last pages of Newspapers in the occupation are usually dedicated to reports from local life. It could be the new rules of the curfew, permission to street trade, news about the renaming of streets or shot lists residents of the city and nearby villages, indicating their crimes. Such a format adhered to the “Voice of Crimea”, Simferopol played in the war.
most of the Newspapers on the last page of published articles about the cultural life, reviews of new plays or Billboard of local events. A revealing example may be Orel “Speech”. In the latest strip here often was the thesis that people of art as “worthy sons of the liberated people” are obliged in their work to demonstrate “infinite hatred of Bolshevism”, flavoring “anger and fury” “the gratitude of Germany.”
Along with the positive reviews on the works of anti-Semitic, were published essays on the tragic fate of the actors, artists, victims of the Stalinist regime. A frequent guest of the “Speech” was the Opera singer Nikolai Pechkovsky – occupied press regularly talked about his talents and quoted the popular singer. Once in occupation, the tenor has continued to make a living singing, and did it so well that the German authorities issued him a K ration and organized concerts for German soldiers and Soviet prisoners of war in concentration camps. For the “joy of service to his people and his liberators” wife of the singer was sent to a camp where she died, and after the liberation of 10 years imprisonment for “collaborating with the occupiers” got himself Pechkovsky.
© Russian Seven
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