History 02/02/20 Which foreigners most fought in the ranks of the red army
Often the Great Patriotic war in recent years are as a confrontation between the Soviet people and army forces of United Europe. Pretty well studied the issue of foreign units in Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS. And here is the relevant info about the red army much less known.
Singles and Spanish
the Soviet Union refused to form the national part of the CC of the CPSU(b) and SNK “On the national units and formations of the red army” from March 7, 1938. But it is not meant that in the first days and months of the war the red army was not the foreigners. It was mainly the Communists and internationalists, who decided to fight for the world’s first Country of Soviets. For example, Greek Jean Zachary, born in Melitopol in 1924, even had the Soviet citizenship, which did not prevent him in 1941 to join as a volunteer in the red army and to end the war in Berlin in may 1945.
he was still single, but their participation begins in the years 1943-1944, as the American Joseph Beyrle, whose plane during the landing in Normandy was shot down, he was in a concentration camp, escaped and persuaded the commanders of the tank battalion, which was part of the First Belorussian front, to allow him to fight, the good-stocked part was American tanks. Beyrle’s son, John, was a U.S. Ambassador to the Russian Federation.
There are stories about blacks in the composition of the various parts, but the evidence could not be found. But the Cuban – Enrique Vilar Figuera – fought, but he was white, according to photos.
most in the ranks of the red army was the Spaniards who took part in the battles from the first days. Is evacuated from Spain after Franco’s victory the Republicans or their grown children. But “Soviet Spaniards” did not form a separate fighting force, like the “Blue division” of Franco, who fought on the side of Germany.
Tuvinian cavalry under the flag of the USSR
Until 1944 Tuva was an independent state, although in the orbit of the Soviet Union. With the outbreak of war the government of Tuva has officially announced allied relations with the USSR, before the USA and the UK. Mostly this was manifested in the supply of a million head of cattle and more than 40 000 horses in 1941-1942. In September 1943 to the front sent a cavalry squadron to 206 for sabres. His staff was dressed in traditional clothing, only in 1944, he dressed in Soviet form, after the occurrence of Tuva in the USSR. The Soviet command has poured Tuvan squadron in the 31-th guards Kuban-black sea cavalry regiment 8th guards division named after Morozov, 6th cavalry corps 13th army 1-St Ukrainian front. Tuva fought valiantly.
the French, poles, Czechs
Judging by the dates of formation of foreign military units in the red army, it was the year 1943 was a turning point. Ordinance of 1938 was not cancelled, it is as if “forgotten”, as appropriate.
the First foreign unit was the squadron (later – regiment) “Normandy-Neman”. The pilot training was completed on March 14, 1943, the head of the establishment and staffing of the air force of red army the General-Lieutenant Alexey Nikitin reported to the Commissar for foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Molotov. First French pilots participated in the air battle, opening an account, in April 1943. Although the negotiations on the creation of part lasted from 1941, on the initiative of the head of “Fighting France” de Gaulle. Pilots were flying Soviet Yak-1 and Yak-3.
During the war the French won the 309 victories, from them confirmed – 273. Four aviators became heroes of the Soviet Union, almost all of the pilots received French and Soviet military awards. Killed 34 and missing 8 pilots of “Normandy-Neman”. Home the French returned to donated Soviet planes, which in the summer of 2018 were shown at the Paris air show in Le Bourget.
the Polish Army, composed of the 1st and 2nd armies crafteAravali in 1944, but in 1943 the fighting led the First Polish case, the basis for which was the First infantry division named after Tadeusz Kosciuszko. In the Polish Army were enlisted Polish citizens from the Pro-Soviet partisans, former prisoners of war and Soviet citizens of Polish origin. The form was a private, arms – Soviet. The inhabitants of the Soviet Union the most famous tank brigade named after the heroes of Westerplatte – on the TV series “Four tankers and a dog”. The Polish army participated in the battles on the territory of the Soviet Union, participated in the liberation of Poland and in the Berlin operation, became the basis for the creation of the regular army, pnrm. In may 1945, the strength of the Polish army totaled 200 thousand people.
Nice way and the Czechoslovak corps Ludwig Freedom. Personnel wearing the Czechoslovak military uniform, the service went according to the statutes of the Czechoslovak army.
Originally established with the battalion, but on April 29, 1943 issued a decree of GKO No. 3265 to create infantry brigade, converted 10 April 1944, 1st Czechoslovak army corps. At the beginning of September 1944 the corps was more than 16 thousand people, including tankers, pilots, and gunners.
At the final stage of the war on the side of the Soviet Union fought the Bulgarian and Romanian parts.
That’s who has never used in battle – so it is a unit of German prisoners, although defected to the Soviet Union the Germans readily used in military propaganda. But the story would not be complete without Fritz Hans Werner Menkes. The son of a German Communist killed in street battles with the Nazis, Fritz refused in 1938 to join the Wehrmacht and was convicted. In 1941 was able to convince the warden that he wants blood to wash away the shame and were sent to the Eastern front. Fled, he was caught and was preparing to shoot, but the lives saved Spencely guerrilla group. The partisans did not trust the German, but he has actively stood up the locals, until Fritz personally killed several Nazis, saving the partisans. After hit it was used in sabotage and ambushes in the way of a German officer. During the fighting awarded the order of Lenin and the red banner, and the Nazis put a bounty on his head.
In 1943, Smangele abandoned behind enemy lines where he was captured and was shot near Minsk. Posthumously became a Hero of the Soviet Union.
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