20/01/20 weapons What weapons of the red Army, the allies considered to be the best
Soviet arms since the great Patriotic war in the development not only lagged behind the advanced Western weapons technology, but surpassed their simplicity, reliability and efficiency. It is no coincidence that some of the armaments of the red army and served after the end of world war II.
war machine rocket artillery “Katyusha” (BM-13) became the most popular weapon of the great Patriotic in its class. The Germans called stuck with their guns “organ of Stalin”, obviously because of the sound made by the tail of the missile. BM-13 was successfully used to enhance defensive and offensive operations, greatly increasing the firepower of Soviet artillery.
a Special value is acquired and the psychological effect of “Katyusha” during the volley of missiles flew from the rails, one after another, in a matter of seconds pereboeva in the affected area hectares of land. Deafened by exploding shells of the enemy troops for a long time lose their orientation. And when it came time to return fire, mobile “Katyusha” has already managed to change the place of deployment.
for the First time the multiple launch rocket system BM-13 was used on 14 July 1941 near Kingisepp in the Leningrad region. The range of the missiles made an impressive 8 kilometers. On the German positions at the same time fell more than 100 rockets destroyed at Orsha station, several trains with supplies for the Wehrmacht and killed hundreds of enemy soldiers. According to eyewitnesses, each rocket literally burned all the space within a radius of several tens meters.
although the explosive charge of a shell of “Katyusha” was less than half than the German jet mortar “Nebelverfer”, its lethality was significantly higher. BM-13 in good condition with full ammo as many timesfell into the hands of the German military, but the German gunsmiths and are unable to find the keys to it. To reproduce the chemical component of the powder the Germans was not difficult, but to know the technical details of the system they failed. From their “donkeys” (Soviet soldiers called “Nebelverfer”) with a range of projectiles is just 2.5 km they had to shoot before the end of the war.
“Katyushas” has caused serious concern in the camp of the allied forces. In exchange for the supply of “lend-lease” to the allies in the first place requested the T-34 and B-13. Tanks, the Soviet leadership was highlighted, but with the “Katyusha” came a hitch. Only when Stalin learned that the Wehrmacht is using 82-mm shells, he was allowed to pass the British and Americans information on the construction of Soviet missiles. His first jet multiple launch rocket system T34 Calliope, the US created only in 1943. Interestingly, they have reproduced the original diagram of “Katyusha” from which later Soviet designers refused: she has contributed strongly to the buildup of cars at the moment of the volley, which significantly reduced the accuracy of fire.
In late February 1945 reference model Soviet heavy tank is-3 (Josef Stalin) went to field tests in Kubinka. Check barigoule, at the conclusion of the war, was passed successfully. The need for new armored vehicles came after the Commission investigated the damage to our tanks during the Kursk battle. Vulnerable have been recognized as elements of frontal hull and turret. All this was taken into account in the design of the is-3 turret and the hull which was redesigned to be more streamlined and sharply differentiated armor protection.
a new tank was adopted in March of 1945, though its serial production at the Chelyabinsk tractor plant began only in may. Until the end of the war was made only a few tens of is-3, many of which have not been factory tested.
According to the latest figures, tanks is-3 never took part in the battles of the great Patriotic war. However David porter in his book “the Second World war – Steel shaft from the East: Soviet armored forces” expresses the opinion that the is-3 could be used in August 1945, during the conflict with Japan.
For everyone to see the is-3 was presented in Berlin on 7 September 1945 at the parade of winners in honor of the end of world war II. These 50-ton giants have been on Alexanderplatz, aroused the admiration of foreign observers and allies. All were shocked by the presence of the Soviets have such a powerful armor. Many believe that the new heavy tank was nothing but a demonstration of the power of Soviet weapons that could be perceived as a response to the American atomic bombing of Japanese cities. No wonder the engine that drove our tanks into Berlin, adorned with a poster: “sends militant greetings to the homeland!”.
the is-3 is not supplied the allies in the “Warsaw Pact”. The only exception was two tanks, transferred to Warsaw and one in Prague, to examine their design. Up to 1970-ies the is-3 was used as training machines, and regularly participated in military parades. In the late 1950s the party is-3 was sold to Cairo. The baptism of battle Soviet tanks got in the “six day war” – the conflict between Egypt and Israel that erupted in June 1967 in the Sinai Peninsula.
the submachine Gun Shpagin system along with “thirty” and “Katyusha” became one of the symbols of the great Patriotic war. “Dad”, as he is respectfully called to the soldiers, was adopted in the end of 1940. Of course, PCA had a number of disadvantages, among which are called its dimensions and weight, the inconvenience of replacing the drums of the low reliability of the fuse, sometimes encountered spontaneous shots when falling on a hard surface. However, the advantages of weapons is compensated with a vengeance.
Historian and weapons expert David Bolotin’s book, “the History of Soviet small arms” along with the high fighting qualities of the PCA noted its exceptional reliability and dependability, which was manifested in the difficult conditions of shooting: angles of elevation and declination to 85, with dusty mechanism, in the absence of lubrication, and also when shooting more than 5,000 rounds without cleaning the weapon.
For the war effort was crucial that cheaper PPSH submachine gun Degtyarev, so they in the first place and provided troops. In 1941, PCA had approximately one-sixth of the infantry of the red army. Later we created the entire company of the gunmen, the arms of which consisted of PCA. They were designed to create a high density of fire on individual sectors of the front. Another advantage of PCA is the capability to fire in winter. Wide bracket is allowed to press the trigger even in fur mittens.
Branded metal casing with oval slits that was worn on the trunk of the PCA, provided the hand protection arrow from overheating. This device aroused great interest among the American soldiers: they continually looked at the PCA, when at the end of April ‘ 45 there was a landmark meeting of allies on the Elbe.
the Total number of PCA machines – 6 million units. This weapon is actively delivered to the partisans, and foreign military units who fought on the territory of the USSR. “Daddy” came to the German court. The soldiers of the Wehrmacht readily used captured Soviet guns, as they could shoot mazurovskii of 7.63 mm ammunition.
the PCA remained in service until the mid 60’s, then began to export to countries friendly to the USSR – China, North Korea, Vietnam and the middle East and the African continent. Today in the web you can find photos of 2003 where American soldiers posing with the PCA during the sweeps in Iraq. It is unlikely that the Americans used this weapon, it was probably captured sample, in service with the Iraqi army.
However, judging by the comments left under the photo, it can be concluded that American servicemene still used our PCA. The user under the name “Lone Ranger” writes that it is a very reliable and effective weapon. He shot out a sample of the Polish production of the 80-ies, which did about 900 rounds per minute. “Best hundred bucks ever spent by me on weapons”, – concluded the military. A user under the name “jeepers” says that the PCA – “the perfect choice for building sweeps”.
© Russian Seven
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