29/12/19 Underground history of Afghanistan: as the Russian “smoked” the spooks from shelters-kariz
Caught in Afghanistan Soviet soldiers faced with many unfamiliar realities. One of them was the kariz (carisi) – underground waterworks, as if specially created in order that there was a shelter for the Mujahideen.
What is the kariz
In the arid climate of Central Asia agriculture developed by a powerful irrigation systems. Since ancient times in the countries of the region learned to build underground conduits for collecting and distributing groundwater, which was located at a depth of 8-10 up to 50 meters. According to archaeologists, such structures existed in Bactria and Sogdiana (the middle of I Millennium BC), and built their very skilled craftsmen.
“the Dam was supposed to possess the professional knowledge in the field of geometry, geodesy, mechanics and art of construction. This was in the X-XI centuries wrote Aburaihan Beruni in his book “the Monuments of past generations”, – said the Tajik researcher Haltura of Norkulov.
In Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan water called the Persian word “kiariz”. Catchment gallery served not only for irrigation but also for water supply of villages.
Kariz has long been used during wars. The length of some of them reaches tens of kilometers, so these tunnels were perfect in order to hide from enemies and to secretly move between settlements. Throughout the kiariz every 20-30 meters, were cleaning the wells, through each of which it was possible to get out.
the guerrilla war waged by the Afghan Mujahideen, the kariz played a huge role. Under the ground could hide as large groups and small groups of saboteurs. General Alexander Lebed recalled that in the Bagram valley great damage to Soviet columns moChapter apply, for example, only two of the grenade throwers and their assistants. Giving a couple of volleys, the spooks hid under the earth.
“Some hurt tank combat will unfold all around you – but two or three cars burning, and it is necessary to pull the wounded and dead and the birds have flown, wrote Swan in the book “power of shame”. – And often not very far, to the nearest kiariz. They are the kariz know as the “our father” and to compete with them in the underground-well the war is useless.”
Indeed, no Central government of Afghanistan could not provide the Soviet army complete circuit kariz. Many of them knew only the inhabitants of specific villages. In addition, the spooks, using existing moves, dug a branch of them, known only to themselves.
“Smoking” of the Mujahideen
Despite the pessimistic mood of the generals, the Limited contingent had to find ways of dealing with “underground guerrillas”. About the tactics of the Soviet units is covered in the article of the researcher of Alexander Melnychuk “the Experience of combat operations of Soviet troops in fighting the armed groups of the opposition in AFGHANISTAN (1979-1989)”.
If you have received information that the underground hides spooks, the Russians blocked the maximum number of exits to the surface. Other outputs are viewed through binoculars, they were induced artillery. To force Afghans to rise up, wells had thrown smoke bombs or grenades RGD-5. Then a special inspection team protected from smoke respirators, went down into the ground and moved from one outlet to another. In the end the enemy had either fled or been destroyed.
Colonel Arnebeck Abdullayev (A. Beck), is engaged in training of Afghan special forces, have described a way of undermining kariz using two charges (usually Italian min TS-2,5), is lowered into the well on ropes of different lengths. First, fire the top charge, then lower. The effect of the shock wave propagation at the same time, according to Abdullayev, was “stereo”.
However, the underground war using explosives and had the “side effect”. If the kariz hit, the water ceased to flow to the fields. Ravaged Afghan farmers, in turn, actively joined the ranks of the rebels.
© Russian Seven
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