History 31/01/20 Vorkuta uprising: as the General Prosecutor of the USSR staged a massacre in the Gulag
“the Patriarch of the Soviet Prosecutor’s office” – so spoke with respect about Roman Andreevich Rudenko colleagues and students. However, this extraordinary man is known not only for his professional work at the Nuremberg trials, but also participation in mass repression. And the suppression of the Vorkuta uprising, the General Prosecutor of the USSR has committed a murder which has not incurred any liability.
an officer of the law
Roman A. Rudenko (1907-1981) was from a typical representative of the Soviet nomenklatura, which managed to make impressive career thanks to a remarkable intelligence, efficiency and determination. Simple Chernihiv guy, advancing on the Komsomol, quickly found his calling in the work of the investigator.
well-Known lawyer, former Deputy Prosecutor General of Russia, Alexander Grigorievich Zvyagintsev, has written a biography about his famous colleague — “Rudenko. The Prosecutor General of the USSR.” The author noted that the Roman Andreyevich had a chance to work in the most difficult times in our nation’s history.
“He had no delusions about their capabilities. Always honestly performed coming from the top of the install because it was clear what threatens and what the outcome of the failure. After all, he is very much seen and experienced in his lifetime. And again. He believed that eventually the General movement and development of the state, which he served, faithful,” the justification for the participation of R. A. Rudenko in the mass repressions of the Stalin era gives in his book Alexander Zvyagintsev.
the Fate of this man is really full of interesting events, investigations and high-profile cases. In the 1945-1946 year, he was the chief Prosecutor of the USSR during the Nuremberg trial of senior Nazi war criminals. In 1953 he headed the investigation into the case of L. P. Beria and his accomplices. Practically every single major trial in which Rudenko did not take part.
He held the position of General Prosecutor of the USSR on 26 June 1953 to 23 January 1981, many at the helm of this Department, was not one. Not by chance Roman A. called the founder of the domestic pre-school.
In the “special Troika”
the Infamous 1937 and 1938, which was the peak of Stalin’s repressions, Rudenko held the post of Prosecutor of Donetsk region. At this time he was part of the so – called “special Troika” – a judicial body established to quickly review the cases of all those people whom the government considered enemies of the people.
In the anthology “Russia. XX century”, dedicated to the history of our country, was published the work “Stalin’s plan to destroy the people: development and implementation of NKVD order No. 00447 “On the operation of repression of former kulaks, criminals and other anti-Soviet elements” of July 30, 1937″. Authors-compilers N. V. Petrov and N. A. Sidorov in the “Supplement No. 2” has led the lists of participants of the “special Troika”, created in different regions of our country. The name R. A. Rudenko is in this official document.
As he worked the courts over the “anti-Soviet elements” is told in many publications. On the basis of unfounded suspicion and false accusation of innocent people by the thousands were sent to companies are notorious of the Gulag. Could a professional like R. A. Rudenko, do not understand? If he was going through these things, literally sewn with white thread.
After Stalin’s death and Beria’s arrest the career of Roman Andreevich reached the highest point. And then there was the Vorkuta revolt, which could seriously undermine the position the newly minted attorney General of the USSR. It is therefore not surprising that the official of such rank has taken a personal part in the suppression of the protest of the prisoners.
“the Russian newspaper” published an article of doctor of historical Sciences, Yuleeand Zerhouni Kantor, “the rise of the cold summer of 53rd”, dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the massacre in Vorkuta Reglage.
“In the uprising took part, according to various estimates, from 15 to 20 thousand prisoners, mostly convicted in the infamous “political” 58th article. Among them were not only repressed in the thirties and forties “enemies of the people”, but have been in captivity or surrounded by and is accused of espionage by Soviet officers, and members of the Ukrainian and Baltic collaborationist forces”, – wrote Y. Z. Kantor.
All of these people were kept in harsh conditions, worked in coal mines and other industries, they had the huge prison terms. March 27, 1953, the Supreme Council of the USSR adopted a Decree on Amnesty, which the prisoners met with enthusiasm. But their hopes were not justified: almost none of the inhabitants of the camp to freedom was not released. Disappointed people began to sabotage the work demanding revision of their cases.
As noted by many historians, this protest was peaceful. The participants only wanted to attract the attention of the government, hoping for change that began after the death of the “leader of all peoples”.
the Murder and carnage
the Vorkuta uprising lasted more than one day. In June 1953, a separate group of prisoners Reclama refused to go to work, did not fulfill the requirements of the administration. And she made concessions.
on 24 July, participants in the uprising, announced a significant easing of the regime: introduced 9-hour day; visits and correspondence with relatives; with the camp clothes were allowed to remove derogatory rooms. Another important point – the prisoners were now able to transfer their families earned money.
Soon most of the camp offices ceased to sabotage the work. Some places even conscious inmates are tied ringleaders of the strike and gave them into the hands of the guards. And only the camp office No 10, who worked at the mine No. 29, stubbornly phave rodolia strike.
Doctor of legal Sciences, specialist in the history of law, Alexander Smekalin, in his book “Prison and jail in Soviet Russia,” wrote that on August 1, 1953, the protesters came Rudenko. While before the formation of inmates, the Prosecutor General of the USSR shot one of the organizers of the strike – Polish activist, Victor Ignatovich. And then the guards shot unarmed people with machine guns.
Despite the fact that Rudenko had committed a premeditated murder in the eyes of his subordinates provoked a bloodbath, no responsibility for his crime, he did not suffer.
According to official data of MIA of the USSR, 1 August, 53 people died, wounds of varying severity received 135 strikers, the rest fled. However, A. S. Stykalin and some other authors claim that the victims were a lot more – a few hundred. They say, their body guards secretly buried right there, in the mine No. 29.
the Surviving organizers of the uprising have added a new date and sent to different camps. The camp administration was accused that the protest of the prisoners had been severely depressed in the Bud.
it is Noteworthy that similar events occurred in the summer of 1953 and in Norilsk. Special camp No. 2 “Mining” was also declared the strike, which ended with mass murder of prisoners.
Rehabilitation of “enemies of the people”
However, it is necessary to pay tribute to R. A. Rudenko: he personally did much to rehabilitate political prisoners as soon as he had the opportunity. May 4, 1954 at the suggestion of the attorney-General was formed by the Central Commission for review of cases of those convicted of “counterrevolutionary crimes” with branches in all regions of the USSR.
As written by A. Zvyagintsev, the chief military Prosecutor, Boris Viktorov, came to the Roman Andreyevich to consult. Employees of the newly formed Commission wanted to make sure whether there is a solid political solution ruthe management of the country on the rehabilitation of all of the wrongfully convicted.
it’s Rudenko said: “the Behavior of your comrades is understandable, it is not easy at once to perceive all the things that you told them. Please refer to the decision on revision of Affairs of the past? What is so used. Do not believe a word? At the Academy were taught. We all have to face the fact that evaluation of some of the events and their participants, the seemingly constant need to be revised. This must be done in the name of truth, justice and the truth of history. And the decision will be. It is cooked”.
That is, Roman A. acted ahead of the event, at your own risk. Rudenko was also included in the lists of rehabilitation of persons in those categories of prisoners who were the backbone of the Vorkuta uprising: the prisoners of war soldiers and officers of the red army; accused of treason by the NKVD; Ukrainian and Baltic collaborators, personally have not committed war crimes.
Was it an attempt to justify ourselves?
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