The damage caused by the war, was reimbursed of the Soviet Union reparations from Germany

History 22/01/20 the damage caused by the war, was reimbursed of the Soviet Union reparations from Germany

the Issue of reparations following the Second world war, even decades later left for Germany, one of the painful topics. No-no and will remind some of the”winners” of their claims to Berlin. Most about and were not compensated for the damage they say in Poland, in 2018, to such claimants were suddenly joined by Greece. And not whether Germany should the Soviet Union?

Pay what you want

Reparations — a form of state responsibility for harm caused to another country in breach of international law. According to conventional wisdom, the amount and methods of compensation must be determined in accordance with the incurred losses. In the case of the Second world war, these issues were resolved in 1945 at the Yalta conference, which identified the forms of reparations, and at the Potsdam conference, when the parties agreed to satisfy the claim.

Initially, Moscow proposed to determine the total size of the reparations of $20 billion, half of which was owed to the USSR. However, allies such conditions are not agreed. As a result, in Potsdam it was agreed that payments will be expressed in a material form, their maximum amount is not stipulated. You can take, for example, machinery, equipment, inventories.

under the agreement, the USSR was right after the war to confiscate property and valuables from the Eastern zone of Germany and taking German assets in Bulgaria, Hungary, Eastern Austria, Romania and Finland. In addition, the UK, USA and France was obliged to surrender to the Soviet Union about a quarter of the dismantled equipment from the Western zones. At the same time Moscow of its share to meet the reparation claims of Poland.

One write, two in mind

the supply of equipment on account of reparations from the Western regions of Germany in the USSR ceased in 1949 after imagesaniya Germany. From the Eastern parts of the country, the flow of the property did not cease until 1954, when entered into force, the agreement of the Soviet authorities and the GDR on the termination payment signed in 1953.

evidence that during this time, managed to obtain the Soviet Union, vary greatly. As noted in the report of the Ministry of Finance of Germany, prepared in 2000, the differences related to the fact that the reparations payments were made without regulatory records, and the victorious took literally everything that they want. Often, the export was engaged in several agencies, which also had a negative impact on reporting. Moreover, the Soviet forces began to collect reparations by using the trophy brigades before were concluded the Potsdam agreement.

In the 1990s, Russian researchers Michael Semiryaga and Boris Knyszewski published data of the Main captured control of the USSR, which allow to judge the extent of the property flows. So, in favor of Moscow from Germany exported about 400 thousand railway wagons with various goods, including 72 thousand with building materials. To the East also went out of 1.34 million cattle and 2.3 million tonnes of grain.

But the greatest interest, of course, was hardware. It turned out that the Union had carried 2885 factories, power plants 96, 340 thousand machines and 200 thousand electric motors. “Residence” changed even the telescopes of the Observatory of the Humboldt University and the Berlin subway cars, not to mention cars, ships and even radios.

still in the black

the scientists are experiencing Difficulties in money is assessed reparations by the Soviet side. For example, experts of the Polish Institute of international Affairs in 2005 estimated that the Soviet Union got things totaling $3,081 billion at the exchange rate of 1938. But referred to other figures — up to $22.1 billion is generally considered the Ministry of Finance of Germany, who came to the conclusion that Soviet authorities seized from East Germany of the property at $15.8 billion.

However, even dvadcatiiyliannie payments not correspond to the losses suffered by the USSR during the Second world war. Direct damage to the country during the fighting is estimated at $128 billion, and total economic losses at $485 billion at the exchange rate at that time.

it is Clear that such damage Germany could not recover without irreparable harm to its economy even in the best times for the country. Besides, during the conference specifically provides that the amount of reparations should not completely undermine the livelihoods of the country. And even despite this, according to some, for East Germany the amount of payments has reached a critical 50-60% of GDP.

However, despite the fact that the monetary equivalent of the parties to reach was not meant to be, reparations played a key role in the postwar development of the Soviet Union. The country has received needed to upgrade technology. As the “intellectual reparations” were taken out German patents, scientific and technical literature, as well as the best scientists and engineers. There were deported 2370 scientists and engineers and about 4,600 members of their families, whose role in the reconstruction of the Soviet economy should not be underestimated.

Without this simple dismantling of equipment would be ineffective, because the Soviet side did not have specialists able to organize the work of the same machines. It would not be in the Soviet Union and developments, which then enabled the country to become a leader, for example, in nuclear and space sector.

But anyway, to the question of “duty of reparation” can be very subjective and considered sufficient or insufficient that Moscow was able to obtain. However, from a legal point of view, signing the agreement on cessation of reparations, the Soviet Union set in this case point.

Ivan Resepi

© Russian Seven

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