The civil war in the Caucasus who fought against the highlanders

History 18/02/20 Civil war in the Caucasus who fought against the highlanders

With the collapse of the Russian Empire at the surface emerged from the tangle of national contradictions in the Caucasus. The situation was complicated by the fact that it was a theatre of hostilities of the First world war.

the Parade of sovereignties

By November 1917 the Russian army had occupied part of the territory of Turkey (Turkish Armenia). There, as everywhere, was the revolutionary expansion. The peoples of Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus were for the national-democratic politicians, who promised them national independence. In Georgia was strong Mensheviks, in Armenia and Azerbaijan, respectively, of the national party of Dashnaks and musavatists. In the North Caucasus acted their national party leaders, and the Cossack regions became the base organization of the White movement.

the mountain peoples began to expel the Terek and Kuban Cossacks from a land they considered their ancestral. The Cossacks did not remain in debt. The mountaineers were focused on the Bolsheviks and the Cossacks on their opponents. This determined the nature of the confrontation in the North Caucasus and, in many ways, it’s ultimate outcome.

However, the Bolsheviks used the national movement only for the purpose of Sovietization and the elimination of the independence. So, mountain Republic (may 1918 – Republic of mountaineers of the North Caucasus, RGSC), including the territory of Abkhazia to Dagestan was proclaimed in November 1917. In March 1918 the government had been forced to flee from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis, because the Bolsheviks were able to proclaim the Terek Soviet Republic. Subsequently, in the same way the Bolsheviks did with the independent republics of Transcaucasia.

After the dissolution by the Bolsheviks in January 1918 of the Constituent Assembly, the Transcaucasian policy announced the establishment of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR).

the German-Turkish interventiI am

Caucasian front the Russian army in early 1918 were virtually nonexistent, as the soldiers in the deserted lot and tried to get home, and property and weapons were seized by authorities SDFR. In February 1918 the Turkish troops, using the refusal of the Soviet government from signing a peace Treaty, began as the German-Austrian offensive. It continued after the conclusion of peace at Brest, as SDFR it was not.

IN SDFR growing ethnic conflicts, and in may 1918 it finally breaks up into separate Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijan Republic. Georgia calls for help the German troops that eventually may land in Poti and to take Georgia under its protectorate. According to the contract Batumi in June 1918, Georgia gives Turkey Adjara and Halitskiy district, and Armenia is reduced to one-third of its present territory. The Azerbaijani government puts itself under the full patronage of Turkey. In August of 1918 the Turkish troops enter Baku, from where it runs landed there before that the British expeditionary force, in September 1918, the Turks occupy Dagestan, which returned to the government RGSC.

meanwhile, in the summer and autumn of 1918, the white army of General Denikin was freed from the Bolsheviks in the Kuban and Stavropol province, in the winter of 1918/19 – Terek region and come to Dagestan, where the Turks had already left. The further advance of the whites was halted by British intervention.

the Period of English intervention and “Armed forces of South Russia”

After the surrender in the First world war of the Quadruple Alliance troops left the Caucasus, and their place was taken by the British. Denikin, in spite of the desire to restore the Russian Empire, had de facto recognize the independence of zakazchitsa States. However, between the whites and the Georgia constantly clashes over the Sochi district, where in the spring of 1919, Denikin was able to finally dislodge the Georgians.

highland region formally surrendered Denikin, but de facto retained independence. In addition, it did not stop the struggle of the partisans of the Pro-Soviet forces. The real power belonged, in fact, field commanders. At the end of 1919, when Denikin had to throw almost all the forces to the front against the advancing red army, white had finally lost even the semblance of control over Chechnya and Dagestan. In February-March of 1920, Soviet troops were engaged in the mountain region of the North Caucasus, where they joined the rebels and together with them began to expel the Cossacks.

In the Caucasus was constantly smouldering hearth three wars and ethnic deportations in Karabakh between Azerbaijan and the Armenian militia in Abkhazia between Georgia and national groups, Barcelonskom and Zagatala districts between Georgia and Azerbaijan. Needless to add that the economy was in complete chaos, the proclaimed democracy remains a fiction, of any rights and freedoms in this setting was not even a hint, and the life of man, as elsewhere in the former Russian Empire at the time, was valued cheaply?


To export world revolution in countries that won independence after the collapse of the Russian Empire, the Bolsheviks began in the winter of 1917/18 G. (Ukraine, Finland). In the beginning of 1920 it was the turn of the Caucasus. Moreover, the mass of the population experienced at the time of independence only the fall in living standards, the arbitrariness and corruption of favorites, own injustice. Local nationalists have almost completely lost the trust of the population. They never managed to build a functioning state and army.

at the end of April 1920 the Azerbaijan border crosses the 11th Soviet army. 28 APR it comes to Baku, from where it runs the Musavat government. In the West, the Ganja, the Bolsheviks had to Tinker, but there the Soviet power was declared in June 1920, the Bolsheviks skillfully played on the Armenian-Azeri conflict, but the fall of that year broke his own Treaty with Armenia and at the same time with the Turks introduced it in his 11th army, formally under the pretext of protecting the Armenians from the Turks. At the end of November 1920, Armenia outside the most part, occupied the time by the Turks, was also announced by the Soviet.

In February 1921, the Bolsheviks, ignoring previously signed with the government of Georgia agreement on the border began military actions against Georgia. Within a month the whole country, including occupied previously for a short time by the Turks, Batumi was occupied by the same 11th army. In Transcaucasia was proclaimed a Federative Soviet Republic in 1922, it became one of the founders of the Soviet Union. While Abkhazia was initially listed in the T. S. F. S. R. “contractual” Federal Republic, and in 1930 she was forced to enter Georgia in the status of an Autonomous Republic.

Yaroslav Butakov

© Russian Seven

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