History 26/12/19 Than the assault of Moscow by Hitler differed from the capture of Berlin by the red Army
the Two most often compare strategic operations of World war II — the battle for Moscow and battle of Berlin. Both operations were critical. And although the German offensive on Moscow finished the war in favor of Germany, but the task that was put before the Wehrmacht in this operation was to win the war, finish it. With the capture of Berlin, the war in Europe ended. However, if from the point of view of the objectives of the operation were similar in terms of performance, the results were opposite.
And the reason for this difference lies primarily in the fact in what condition the parties have come to the beginning of each of these operations. The Wehrmacht, beginning the war and successfully stepping from the border, three months of war suffered too big losses, undermine the offensive power of the German military machine.
during the operation “Typhoon” the German tanks approached so close to the Soviet capital that would seem to need the latest breakthrough tanks, and the victory achieved. But the tanks ran out before the army, the Wehrmacht reached outskirts of Moscow.
Gathering for an attack on Moscow, all the forces, even weakening the other sectors of the front, the German command failed to create a numerical advantage over the red Army, all the more overwhelming. If you count even the troops that actually participated in the offensive, the Wehrmacht had 70 divisions, 1200-1500 tanks, 350-400 aircraft. It must be borne in mind that the German units were badly battered form sent tylovikov, the average infantry division was 9-11 thousand.
In their opposing three fronts of the red Army had 95 divisions and 14 brigades, not less than 1,200 tanks, about 900 combat aircraft. But this data is only the beginning of the operation. The red Army was dozens of emerging divisions and brigades, which were introduced into combat during the battle. If you examine the Handbook “the Combat composition of the Soviet Army during the great Patriotic war of 1941-1945”, it is easy to see that the composition of the red army on the Moscow direction is constantly changing. By November 1 the number of total connections is a little reduced, they become 79 divisions and 26 brigades. But after, it was destroyed several fronts and the Red Army suffered the biggest losses over the entire course of the fighting. However, the front was thrown more troops and the situation restored. And after heavy fighting in November, on the Moscow direction had 86 divisions and 41 brigade, and this force is not exhausted and in the rear formed a new army.
To the beginning of the offensive in December, after huge losses in the red Army the number of divisions increased in comparison with the beginning of the war. Fewer tanks: 1 December, according to the Handbook “the Combat and numerical composition of the Armed Forces of the USSR during the great Patriotic war (1941-1945). Statistical compilation No2”, was only about 6000 of them in the army only in 2000. But by the time Panzer division barely gained ten serviceable machines. After all, if the Soviet command to constantly introduce new troops and sent for the completion of those already fought the Wehrmacht in what part of the beginning of the offensive in this way.
Quite a different picture can be seen in 1945. Despite four years of bloody battles, losing millions of people, a huge number of weapons and equipment, the Red Army grew steadily. And the last decisive battle came at the peak of his power.
For only one Berlin offensive operations were allocated in the three fronts of approximately the same number of troops as there were in the entire army of the red army to the beginning of the German offensive on Moscow in 1941. In the attack on Berlin was attended by 225 infantry and cavalry divisions, the 21st Panzer and mechanized corps, on 19separate tank and self-propelled artillery brigades. According to the data from the work “history of the Second world war. 1939-1945”, volume tenth, in the attack was attended by nearly two million people, 6250 tanks, 41 600 guns and mortars, more than 7500 aircraft. And this Soviet official data, which are traditionally underreported.
From the same source you can see that opposing Soviet troops in Berlin, the group included “48 infantry, 9 tank and 6 motorized divisions; private 37 infantry regiments, 98 separate infantry battalions, and a large number of separate artillery and special units (1 million, 10 400 guns and mortars, 1,500 tanks and assault guns and 3,300 combat aircraft)”.
Even despite the fact that the number of planes is overestimated more than twice, in a specified number of tanks included, in addition to 350 400 tanks and assault guns, all kinds of self-propelled anti-aircraft up to, and most of the units had and put half of them troops and weapons, the ratio in favor of the red Army still looks overwhelming. Even if you use only the official Soviet data.
Respectively, and the result was easy to predict. The Soviet leadership understood that the German forces in tatters, and the issue of full and final victory was only a matter of time.
In 1941, after the frontier battles were completely destroyed part of the staff of the red Army near Kiev and Smolensk was destroyed more troops, which the German command didn’t even know existed before the war, the German General staff was also confident that the forces of the red Army undermined. The German government made a mistake, and this mistake proved fatal, to take Moscow had failed. In this mistake lies the similarity and the difference between the two greatest battles of the war.
© Russian Seven
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