History 12/02/20 taught schools in the German-occupied territories of the USSR
Not all Soviet citizens were able to evacuate before the onset of the Nazis. But the occupied territories left about 70 million people. The land the Nazis had planned to make a raw food base, and their inhabitants – cheap and submissive labor force. Such a strategy would allow to make a breakthrough further to the East and capture the entire territory of the USSR. It was necessary to maintain order, to leave the safety of the industry and agriculture.
the renewal of the school system during the occupation
In German-occupied territories, the education system started to freeze. The Germans were counting on a blitzkrieg, so they did not exist no long term programs. For age groups older than 14 years, the Germans imposed instead of studying labor service, and the younger parents were afraid to go to school, especially because school is not always within shouting distance. But the fascist system gave too much importance to psychological treatment, to lose such an important aspect of education. The Germans began to establish a system of education on the occupied territory of the USSR by the end of 1941 and beginning of 1942 that primary education became compulsory. Education program quickly developed in Ostland in Riga, to its establishment attracted members of immigrant families who once fled from the revolution. For politically neutral items were used Soviet textbooks came out of them pages with portraits of leaders.
the German system of propaganda has sought to attract teachers to their side. Their profession has positioned itself as honorable, they were paid a salary plus bonuses for seniority, for an additional teacher for their participation in the organization of political events. They also issued a products. The teaching profession in numbers was most common at aboutkupirovanii German territories.
similarities and differences between the German and Soviet educational system
School education in the period of the occupation was paid. With parents of first-graders took 20 rubles a month, with 30 second graders, teaching 5 to 7 classes was optional and payment there was 200 rubles a month. If attended school several children from the same family, the second and subsequent payment was declined.
a Set of school subjects changed the main and necessary was the German language. Russian language United with drawing and singing. Remained items: physical education, mathematics, geography, science, needlework (for girls) and work (for boys) and the law of God. History and literature were taught in a highly ideologiserad form. Adventure stories about distant lands, such as “Robinson Crusoe”, in the German interpretation served the local people of color as inferior. At the same time in the program were the classics of Russian literature: Pushkin, Gogol, Tolstoy, Lermontov.
Special attention was paid to the common historical roots of Russia and Germany: it was emphasized that on the throne of the Russian tsars was often the Germans, in a favourable light were served in common military alliances. Positively interpreted, the German migration to Russia and promoted the prospects of moving to work in Germany.
Even mathematical problems were politicized: the students calculated the flow of Finance for offenders in prisons, the percentage of Jews in Europe.
the foundations of German education differed little from the Soviet instills the same principles of respectful attitude to senior and subordination, encouraged labor to benefit society, mutual aid, unselfishness. In educational texts the characters were children, helping those who needed it. Through the books promoted a healthy lifestyle: law-abiding, attention to health, hard work and love of purity.
there were Regular political meetings, during which the children told racial theory and praised Germany’s role in the liberation of the country from the Bolsheviks. Special attention was paid to the creation of a positive image of the Fuhrer. The students showed photos of Hitler with children and animals, nature or with a book in hand, always in a modest and pleasant atmosphere.
In the classroom in a conspicuous place on was placed the portrait of the Fuhrer.
the situation with the school was different. In villages and small towns, learning is not forced. Often the school was a few kilometers, and the infrastructure was destroyed. In Smolensk, where the commandant was ambitious and energetic background Shvets, primary education up to 4th grade became mandatory. For missing classes the parents were fined, and the systematic absences could be put in jail for a month, and children to deliver to school by force. Teachers were required to submit lists of absentees to the office.
Children 12 to 14 years old accounted for the occupation concern that they have not had to learn, and up to the age of the labor service has not grown. The German report expresses concern that this age stratum is the group of risk due to unemployment may commit antisocial acts. Therefore, for this category were encouraged to work for it issued ration cards.
With 14 years of labor service was mandatory. The work was physically very heavy: from 6 am to late Teens together with adults dug ditches, built roads, removed snow, worked on the sawmill and the peat.
In contrast to the Soviet system of higher education by the Nazis was not encouraged. During the occupation functioned vocational schools, which were prepared by workers of different professions and artisans. Encouraged peasant labor. Allowed education in Universities, engineers and agronomists. To higher education students is allowed only with the free knowledge of the German language. In comparison with the Soviet system, in the German professional aboutthe formation is not dominated by the theory and practice of the specialty to young professionals after graduation immediately could proceed to grade work. It was planned to send talented young people to study in universities of Germany. In General, citizens of the USSR it was planned to prepare high-quality lower staff and direct them were German citizens, immigrants, or completely reformatted the Russians.
According to eyewitnesses
the inhabitant of Kiev Andrey Shevchuk talks about his mother, Valentina Nikolaevna Nikolaeva. She spent her childhood in the town of Velikie Luki. When the Germans invaded she was in third grade and in fourth it went: finished after the war. She recalled that parents were afraid to send her to school, preferring that her daughter was in her eyes, standing in the city the Germans came across all sorts of thugs. But at the same time, Valentina remembers how some soldiers fed the children and even gave them sweets. The family Valentina escaped from the occupation in Leningrad and lived there all the horrors of the siege.
Maikapar Maxim Bogatyrev shared their family history. The family of his uncle Ivan Antonenko lived in the village of Bitter Balka in Stavropol region. The family was large: nine brothers and sisters.
Ivan was nine years old when his village was occupied by the Germans. In school in those days was a spinning Board with a horizontal axis. Ivan Antonenko just posted at the blackboard when the door opened and in entered the class a few Germans; among them was a boy about his age: the son of one of the officers. In a small German was a full military uniform. He approached the van and began to tell him, but that, of course, did not understand. Then the German boy got excited, took out a gun and began to poke them with Russian peers in the ribs. Vanya, without thinking, twisted the Board, the young occupant thoroughly flew on the head, and he then dived upside down with your pistol. The boy escaped death only thanks to the teacher, towhich rushed to his defense.
© Russian Seven
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