Another 31/12/19 Spies and scouts: how do they differ
it is Noteworthy that this status can have one and the same person – provided that will be disclosed by the intelligence services of one state, working in the interests of another.
self-interest as the dividing line
a veteran of the Soviet counterintelligence Igor Damaskin in his book on intelligence and espionage explains the difference between spies and scouts just. In Damascus, the scout is a member of the intelligence services of any state, for whom such work is the main and only profession for life, a calling. Even if he is working in a foreign country under the “roof” of the journalist, diplomat or representative of any other profession.
the Spy is an enemy scout, is often a citizen of the country whose interests it betrays, passing secret and top secret information to foreign intelligence services. However, the spy he is only from the point of view of the state against which working for the country, which gets valuable information, it intelligence agent.
From a professional scout one motive – duty. Spies explanations of what they do may be many, and greed is not the only one of them, though, and the most frequent. Spies are often motivated by a sense of revenge for something, fear of being compromised, ideological and other considerations. This, according to Damascene, is a profound difference between scouts and spies, doing the same job – extracting secret information about the enemy. The status of honorary scout, his image heroes in film and literature. Spies also despicable in any country and under any political regime.
in international law
in Addition to the moral and ethical, there is a legal distinction between these two terms, as provided for under international humanitarian law. One of the subjects of this law – the Hague Convention of 1907and. Its principles, according to Russian foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, declared 2 years ago in celebration of the 110th anniversary from the date of adoption of this document, the Russian Federation, it is necessary today. Articles XXIX, Annex IV, and 26 of Additional Protocol I of the Convention is quite clear dividing line between espionage and intelligence activities. This, however, is military time. Spy in time of war is a person, secretly or fraudulent way of extracting information for the enemy. For these spies when their exposure apply the relevant provisions of the criminal law in force in the state against which they were spying.
the intelligence, according to the Hague Convention – a soldier of the enemy, dressed in military uniform of his army at the time of collection of information on the territory occupied by the opposing party. Military intelligence is not hidden under the guise of “local resident” and does not resort to other means of deception for the extraction of interesting information. Only in this case, when the capture of de jure he gets pow status. Otherwise “mishandled Cossack” is referred to the spies with all the ensuing legal consequences.
In the current criminal code
In the modern Russian criminal law article 276 separate “Espionage” is only for foreigners and individuals without citizenship. Its strap less stringent sanctions than those actions provided for citizens of the Russian Federation (article 275 of the criminal code “high treason”, espionage in its structure – one of the types of crimes under treason). If a foreigner for espionage threatens from 10 till 20 years of imprisonment, the Russians for committing similar crimes shines from 12 to 20 years plus 2 years of restriction of freedom after his release. Can also assign a large penalty. And spies, and traitors to the state under the criminal code of the Russian Federation may exempt from criminal liability if they promptly give up and in their conscience there would be other crimes became publicly known.
© Russian Seven
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