History 30/01/20 Some motorcycle troops of the red army in the Great Patriotic
the period between the First and Second world wars in the military was characterized by, among other things, the extensive development of motor and samokatnaya (Cycling) units. They were created usually on the basis of cavalry units, whose functions and took over. For example, in Belgium, cyclists and motorcyclists completely replaced cavalry Belgian cavalry division, though kept the name, but they were no horses, and only bicycles, motorcycles and cars.
the Wehrmacht was no exception. In all movable joints (Panzer, light and motorized divisions and brigades) was formed a motorcycle battalion (Kradschützen-Bataillone). In their composition they did not differ from normal infantry, only instead of trucks or armoured personnel carriers used motorcycles. Motor units were also a significant part of the reconnaissance battalions of these same compounds.
the Motorcycle battalions of the Wehrmacht lasted until the end of 1942, when they were United with the intelligence battalions. They survived only in some SS divisions, and some were even motorbike shelves.
In the red army, for a long time there was no motorcycle, no samokatnaya parts. The reason for this was the lack of mass production of bicycles and motorcycles.
the First motor part in the red army appeared in February 1940. At first it was a separate motorcycle battalion, then began to form motorcycle shelves in the part of the mechanized corps.
But the problem of industrial production has not been solved, it is not surprising that the Great Patriotic war, some regiments met without motorcycles. For example, the 2nd motorcycle regiment 8th mechanized corps on July 1 of motorcycles had not.
7-June 1941 a document “On the implementation of the resolution SNK USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU(b) “On the development of the motorcycle industry in the USSR.” It was reported that “the plan for 5 months of 1941 3 850 motorcycles made in the amount of 2 936 pieces, or 76.0 per cent”. And for all of 1940 was released 2 509 motorcycles. The industry could not cope even with such a plan for the release.
This despite the fact that the troops of the Wehrmacht at the Soviet border was 30 432 of the motorcycle, and just at that moment the German armed forces had more than 90 000 motorcycles.
Not once in the red army came also to the understanding of the purpose and structure of motorcycle parts. “Counsel, motorcycle troops,” was published only in the summer of 1941, although development began in 1940. At the same time there were such “important” information: “the actions of motor units should be bold, enterprising, cunning, to mislead and create havoc behind enemy lines”.
the Original motorcycle shelf was a shelf, relatively large in number (1 685 personnel), but poorly armed. The regiment consisting of three battalions of three companies each, was only 27 50-mm mortars and 81 light machine gun.
For comparison, a German motorcycle battalion 1941, numbering 850 people consisted of five companies: three motorcycle, machine gun and heavy weapons. The battalion was 54 manual and 14 machine guns, 9 antitank guns, 27 of 50-mm and 6 81-mm mortars, 2 75mm infantry and 3 37-mm antitank guns, 2 armored vehicles of communication.
the beginning of the war the regiment change, it is three battalions were only four companies. But because the motorcycle Department with 11 people increased to 16, the total number of personnel is not much diminished – was 1 417 people. But increased number of heavy weapons: 16 heavy and 192 light machine guns, 17 armored medium, 6 45-mm guns, 24 50-mm mortar, 20 backpack flame throwers.
the Number of motorcycles decreased significantA. If in 1940 the regiment was 731 motorcycle (704 with a stroller), in 1941, left 389 motorcycles with sidecar and 45 without a wheelchair.
After the war many motorcycle shelves had been destroyed or disbanded, but was later created new battalions and regiments. The battalion was to join the tank and mechanized corps, regiments – in the composition of armies. The downward trend in the proportion of it departments motorcycle in motorcycle parts continued.
Formed a separate motor battalions originally consisted of three motor and one armored car company. However, by 1943, the battalion changed and it left two motorcycle companies. But I added a tank company, a company of armored personnel carriers and anti-tank battery (4 45 mm gun). In total, the battalion was 450 men, 111 motorcycles, 10 tanks, 5 armored cars, 10 British armored personnel carriers “Universal”.
Motorcycle regiments of the battalion differed in that they were further machine-gun and mortar company, battery of 76-mm guns and one antitank battery. Most often, the shelves were 57-mm self-propelled anti-tank installation instead of “EP”.
a regiment staff consisted of 1 188 people, 214 motorcycles, 10 tanks, 13 armored wheel of the American “Scout”, 4 American half-track armored personnel carriers M2, 1 armored personnel carrier “Universal”, 3 armored car BA-64, 8, 57-mm self-propelled anti-tank launchers (American T48), 4 76-mm cannon, 9 82-mm mortars.
the Motorcycle regiments and battalions were not the only parts of the red army, where the state provided for the foreign equipment obtained under lend-lease. In most parts of the armament was British tanks “Valentine”, although it could be T-70 and (rarely) T-34. In the machine-gun company machine guns were installed on the “Jeep” and turned into a mobile unit. Motorcycles, especially at the end of the war, usually also had lend-lease, thicketse all American Harleys.
In General, the clearly visible trend of increasing motorcycle parts armored vehicles and heavy weapons so that the name “motorcycle” can be applied with great reservations.
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