Another 18/12/19 Samara and other cities, which could become the capital of the USSR
the capital of the Russian Federation in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union, left Moscow. However, the same status as a subject of the Federation – Federal city – along with Moscow received and St. Petersburg. In 2014 he added the third entity of the same rank – the city of Sevastopol.
But as in Soviet times and afterwards, there were options, when the capital of the Russian Federation could be other cities, along with Moscow and even in her stead.
Since the formation of the USSR in December 1922, the Central organs of power and administration was housed in Moscow, where the Central authorities of the RSFSR. Their functions were duplicated in most parts of the territory of the USSR, and already in 20-e years the authorities of the RSFSR, in contrast to all other Soviet republics, turned into fiction. Almost all their powers spur of the moment arrogated to themselves the Union companies, and this situation prevailed until 1990.
In the years 1948-1950 Stalin was deployed the next series of reprisals against a number of party and Soviet leaders of high rank – “Leningrad affair”. In its framework the accused was charged, in particular, the attempt to destroy the Soviet Union by creating a separate from the Soviet Union of the capital of the RSFSR in Leningrad and transfer to the higher authorities of the largest Union Republic. Nowadays, many historians who have studied the matter, believe that his defendants had indeed discussed the plans division of the Federal and Republican the capital and transferring the latter to Leningrad to give the authorities of the RSFSR autonomy comparable to other Union republics.
Shortly after the election of Vladimir Putin as President of Russia in 2000, the media circulated information on the review at the top of the move the higher authorities from Moscow to Saint Petersburg. It was about the transfer of all or part of the capital optionsiy. The project is partially realized. In 2008, by the decree of President Dmitry Medvedev from Moscow to St. Petersburg moved the constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.
In early March of 1918, when the Council of people’s Commissars, under threat of capture of Petrograd by German troops, took the decision to move out of the capital of the RSFSR, it was first officially declared that the Soviet government moved to Nizhny Novgorod. And in the course of the civil war in October 1919, a situation when whites threatened at the same time both Moscow and Petrograd, and Nizhny Novgorod was safer. The idea of the deployment of the higher authorities of the RSFSR could have been implemented at the time.
In October 1941, when German forces threatened to break to Moscow, Stalin took the decision to evacuate all state institutions, banks, museums and universities in different regions of Russia. The highest bodies of authority and administration, foreign embassies, it was decided to place in Kuibyshev, as it was then called Samara. In February 1942, after the removal of the immediate threat of capture by the enemy of Moscow, most of them were returned to Moscow. It is theoretically possible to imagine a situation in which Stalin would have decided to geographically divide the capital of the USSR and the RSFSR, leaving the latter in Samara.
1990-1991, when did the political conflict between the leads of the USSR and the Russian Federation over the division of power, voices for the placement of capital RSFSR from Moscow separately. One of the candidates was called Voronezh. It was found a historical justification. In the period between 1695 and 1722 in Peter much more often resided in Voronezh (where were built the Azov fleet), than in Moscow or in new Petersburg.
Even during the great Patriotic war in Sverdlovsk began to be equipped with one of the spare bunkers of Stalin in case of capture by the Germans of Moscow. Its construction has not stopped after the end of the war, as immediately came tothe storm of a Third world war with the United States. In Sverdlovsk arose a backup command post for the Soviet leadership in case of nuclear conflict.
In the days of the events of August 19-21, 1991 in the environment of Boris Yeltsin and the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, there were made proposals to transfer the leadership of the Russian Federation in Sverdlovsk, where Yeltsin was previously the first Secretary of the regional Committee of the CPSU. The proposal was not implemented only because of the imminent collapse of the coup.
In 2017 with a proposal to move the capital of the Russian Federation in Yekaterinburg was made by a member of the High Council of party “United Russia” Dmitry Orlov.
During the standoff between Russian President Yeltsin and the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation in September-October 1993, among the deputies of the Supreme Council suggested that moving to Novosibirsk, which is rumored to be supported by the Supreme Council, proclaiming it the provisional capital of Russia and the beginning of the fight there against the “usurped power” of the President. The proposal is not realized for two reasons: blockade of the Supreme Council in its building in Moscow and his subsequent rapid acceleration.
However, in the beginning of the XXI century proposal to move the capital of Russia in Novosibirsk began to speak at Pro-government circles in connection with the desire to unload overcrowded Moscow from part of the administrative functions and excess population. In 2005, the chief political strategist of the first two pre-election campaign of Vladimir Putin, Gleb Pavlovsky at the meeting with activists of the movement “Young Russia” supported the idea of moving the capital to Novosibirsk. In February 2014, the LDPR faction in the State Duma introduced a bill on the delegation of Novosibirsk the status of a Metropolitan city, along with Moscow and St. Petersburg.
At the next annual youth forum “Seliger” in July 2014, Vladimir Putin called the idea of moving the capital of Russia from Moscow to Siberia, for example, in Krasnoyarsk, and did not rule out such a possibility in the future.
Capital in the far East
the Head of public organization “Movement development” Yury Krupnov since 2004 promotes the idea of placing the capital of the Russian far East, close to the most dynamic region of the world – Southeast Asia. As he said, it should become a stimulus for the development of the country, which three centuries ago was the transfer of the capital to St. Petersburg.
the New capital
from time to Time put forward the idea of building in Russia of a new city under capital functions at different time in the US, Australia and Brazil. In particular, in 2006 this proposal was expressed by the Governor of Moscow region Boris Gromov.
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