History 27/01/20 Link and exile: who was punished in the USSR
For committing crimes in the USSR in addition to the detention of a person for the prison or camp, practiced and less severe punishments. The authority to expel and banish OGPU received in 1924. Later, this practice in detail regulated. In January 1930 the Central Executive Committee and SNK of the RSFSR issued a Decree of expulsion and exile, used of judicial sentencing. According to this document, according to the court, a person was sent — that is, to deny to live in a particular location (in other citizen could live freely) or in all major cities, and 100-kilometer zone around them. Secondly, a person was exiled — that is, to allow him to stay in one particular place. Reference could be combined with forced labor or a ban on performing any activity. To punish thus could not only persons under 16 years of age. Upon completion of the term specified in the sentence, the person could return to the city in the Soviet Union, from which he was expelled, or to choose any other place for later life. From 1958 to send you not more than 5 years, but after the death of Stalin, this type of punishment was practiced rarely.
Often “criminals” who were exposed to these forms of punishment were politically unreliable people, dissidents: human rights defenders, writers, scientists, politicians of different levels. This has happened in all periods of the history of the Soviet Union. For example, was exiled to Gorky the first and the most famous Soviet human rights activist, Creator of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, Andrei Sakharov; in the Kazakh village of Kok-Terek, a writer and anti-Soviet Alexander Solzhenitsyn; politician and former Minister of culture Georgi Alexandrov involved in the sex scandal, was in 1955 and exiled to Minsk. Before the war, Stalin exiled his enemies. Lev Davidovich Trotsky, he was exiled to Alma-ATAin 1928.
And the following year Trotsky was exiled from the Soviet border. Sometimes the links were preceded by the expulsion of the prohibition to live in the USSR. In 1974, the exiled Alexander Solzhenitsyn. In the seventies, exile has become the standard method of fighting against the writers, not differing political loyalty, but enough is known (to put them in prison was not a very good decision, as all too clearly demonstrated the repressive policies of the state). For example, Joseph Brodsky is not in jail for his far from communism political views, but survived and exile, and exile (in 1972). The poet never returned home and died in 1996 in the United States.
Link, by the way, from prison differed only in that near lived exiled criminals, and yet it was possible to visit not only the work, the camera and the prison yard. Otherwise, human freedom is also limited. Brodsky was in exile in 1964-65 he in the village of Norinskaya in the Arkhangelsk region, surrounded by dense forests and swamps. He carried out there are different physical work – the grain with a shovel, for example, and even manure. Over 5 years of exile, the young poet tried many other occupations: he was a Cooper, a carriage driver, a roofer, a shepherd, a laborer, a farmer (or rather, “agricultural workers Brodsky”). His house – “the little hut” with “square, the size of a porthole window.”
Exile was an unofficial punishment, is that it is allowed to create the impression that dissident himself decided to leave. As Brodsky later told in the book “Big book of interview”, in may 1972, he was summoned to OVIR (Department of visas and registration of the Ministry of interior of the USSR) and there’s some Colonel gave him two versions of events: either he is in the coming days leaves the country, or he will arrange soon “hot time” – prisons, interrogations and abuse, persecution and compulsory treatment in mental hospitals. By the way, some writers have passed through this hell. Brodsky, too, has twice visited on “surveys” in psychiatric hospitals (in fact it was intimidation), agreed to emigrate. So in fact, this emigration was a forced exile. Researcher P. Polyan in the book “Emigration: who and when in the twentieth century left Russia” writes that a significant part of a half-million “third wave” of emigration (1948 – 1986) out of the USSR was forcibly sent abroad. In addition to Brodsky, this fate befell many well-known writers: Vasily Aksyonov, Vladimir Voinovich, Russian writer Sergei Dovlatov, Naum Korzhavin, V. Maximov, I. Pomerantsev, A. Sinyavsky, etc. Most have never been to live in exile, even after 1991. But if the writers returned to Russia at least through their books, even hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, lawyers, artists, dissidents, just people of different professions – have been seized by homeland and worked for the benefit of other countries. The “brain drain” of that era – a heavy loss, the consequences of which have not been overcome until now.
© Russian Seven
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