History 08/02/20 As Vietnam in the twentieth century won the three great powers – France, USA and China,
And all that Vietnam has made in a short time thirty-five years.
Dien bien Phu – the biggest shame of the French army in the twentieth century
After the Second world war, France was not going to abandon its colonial Empire and for a long time waged an unsuccessful war for its preservation. Among the colonial possessions of France were treated and Indochina, which are now three independent countries – Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.
During the Japanese occupation, there was formed the puppet “independent” state. At the same time increasing the people’s movement for genuine independence, inspired the Communist slogans. On the day of the surrender of Japan on 2 September 1945 levopatrioticheskih movement “Vietminh”, led by the Communists, announced the creation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV).
France did not recognize the DRV and demanded that the “Viet Minh” disarmament. With the help of British and Chinese Kuomintang troops, the French regained control of the reference points of colonial administration. In the woods broke out guerrilla war against the colonialists.
After 1950 in the civil war in China the Communists won, with China began to be assisted with arms, “Vietmin”. The war reached a turning point.
France did not lose hope to save Vietnam, proclaiming there, following the example of the Japanese, ostensibly an independent state. Of key importance to the French command was given to hold the town of Dien bien Phu on the border with Laos. From November 1953 there was a concentrated 15 thousand French troops (mainly the Foreign Legion and the colonial part). But the operation of the Vietnam people’s army (VNA) has demonstrated the impotence of the French command at the front and marked the recognition by France of its final defeat in Indochina.
Aboutthe garden of Dien bien Phu was preceded by a highly successful sabotage of the BHA in the night from 6 on 7 March 1954 at aerodromes, which were put out of action 78 French transport aircraft. The French command lost the opportunity to supply the garrison of Dien bien Phu, which was completely blocked since March 13. The French also missed the point of concentration of BHA under Dien bien Phu – suddenly there were six divisions of the rebels.
the Vietnamese was regularly thwarted all attempts to supply the besieged garrison both by land and by air. French aircraft and ground forces suffered heavy losses in equipment. The ring around the garrison, where famine and disease, were pulled together tighter. May 7, Brigadier General de Castries has decided to capitulate. 12 thousand French troops were captured, more than 2,000 died. The Vietnamese, much worse armed, irrevocably lost about 5,000 people. For their stubbornness colonial France in 1946-1954 paid a total of 75 thousands of lives of their soldiers.
the next day after the surrender of Dien bien Phu the Geneva peace talks began, and ended with the establishment of the independence of the DRV North of the 17th parallel.
the biggest defeat in their history
the Geneva conference established that in Vietnam must, in 1956 undergo free elections. But in October 1955 the government of South Vietnam declared that they refuse to do so. There was formed the puppet “Republic of Vietnam”, and France as the metropolis has replaced the United States.
On the territory of South Vietnam was to turn Pro-Communist guerrilla movement “Viet Cong”, which aims the reunification of the country. USA saw the main hearth “Viet Cong” in North Vietnam. In August 1964, the Americans provoked the incidents in the Gulf of Tonkin. Accusing the DRV in the attack on the ships of the American Navy, USA 5 August 1964 bombed civilian targets in North Vietnam.
In March 1965 years the United States began regular bombing campaign of Vietnam. At the same time in South Vietnam was sent to American ground troops. During the war, their number reached 540 thousand people. The hot phase of the war lasted until the end of 1968. During this time the Americans tried to destroy the base of the “Viet Cong” and to paralyze the will to fight of the population of Northern Vietnam. This only resulted in huge losses of American soldiers, which caused a wave of protest against the Vietnam war in the United States.
Since 1969, the U.S. sought only opportunities to leave Vietnam without too much shame. They declared the defense of South Vietnam by the South Vietnam in March 1973, withdrew its troops from the country. In 1975 the war for the unification of the country was completed in the entire territory of Vietnam was proclaimed the socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV).
the Defeat of the US was due to the guerrilla tactics of the enemy in jungle environments. In addition, significant assistance of the DRV provided the USSR and the PRC. Contingent of Soviet military specialists in Vietnam (pilots, sailors, campers, rocketeers, gunners, professionals, radar, etc.) had more than 10 thousand people. The Americans acknowledged the loss in Vietnam for combat reasons 2403 5607 aircraft and helicopters. Not returned from the war 58 thousand US citizens, tens of thousands of Americans have become permanently disabled.
General Philip Davidson, the author published in Russian book “Fighting Vietnam”, held the post of chief of army intelligence in Vietnam, believed that the main reason for the US defeat was the lack of will among the political leadership of the country. It abandoned the land invasion of North Vietnam.
reflection of the Chinese aggression
During the American-Vietnamese war, China helped Vietnam. However, in the late 1970s, relations between the two countries deteriorated. In China after the death of Mao Zedong lasted started their campaign of the Chinese hegemony. Special discontent of the Beijing caused the overthrow with POMOSU Vietnamese troops the terrorist regime of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, as well as increased convergence of Vietnam with the Soviet Union.
For the invasion of Vietnam was concentrated grouping of 600 thousand soldiers of the PLA. She resisted only 100 thousand soldiers VNA. February 17, 1979, the Chinese invaded Northern Vietnam. The offensive of Chinese troops needed to be maintained prepared by the uprising of the Chinese Diaspora inside Vietnam. The biggest advance of the PLA was achieved on 5 March, but on March 17 it was completely driven from Vietnam.
the Main factor in the victory of Vietnam is a huge combat experience, BHA, produced in the course of the war with the United States. In addition, from the beginning of the conflict, the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact countries sent in Haiphong port ships carrying weapons. Numbers specific help is still kept secret. The ships of the Pacific fleet of the USSR ensured the defense of the coast of Vietnam.
© Russian Seven
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