30/12/19 biography of Inessa Armand: why Lenin buried his mistress on the red square
In October 1920, Inessa Armand was buried in the Kremlin necropolis – and there were a number of reasons.
the Unbroken Protocol
If initially the walls of the Kremlin were buried prominent figures of the Soviet Union and participants of the October revolution, in 20-30-ies in the main square of Moscow was a place for foreign Communist revolutionaries. So, in the same grave with Armand in the same year were buried prominent figure in the American labor movement and one of the organizers of the Communist party of America, John reed. He and Armand, participated in the October revolution, was personally acquainted with Lenin, repeatedly met with the Leader of the world proletariat, highly valued and best-selling reed’s “Ten days that shook the world” and a revolutionary biography.
So the funeral of Inessa Armand, the walls of the Kremlin was not a violation of the Bolsheviks Protocol. Although the fact of a love affair between Armand and Lenin is still a matter of controversy, it is impossible to deny that Armand has been an active participant in revolutionary activities in Russia. It was noted in the November fighting in the streets of Moscow in the 17th, repeatedly arrested, was engaged in underground activity and propaganda among the workers of France, in the last years of his life he headed the female Department of the Central Committee of the RCP.
Today, foreign bibliographers Lenin paint him as a Communist fanatic who was ready to sacrifice people to achieve a goal. It is clear that the image of Lenin cannot be reduced to such unambiguous language, because nothing human is not alien to Lenin was. It is obvious that Armand was more than just a good translator and faithful ally, ready to execute any order.
According to the British bibliographer Michael Pearson, carefully studied the correspondence of Lenin and Armand, connects them not just a friendly relationshipI. Inessa Fyodorovna was the only representative of the weaker sex (except Krupskaya), to which the Leader spoke on “you”. However, in the notes, where Lenin asks about health and worry about the life of Armand, read, rather, the fatherly care of “dear friend”: “is There wood? Is there any food? Who’s cooking? Compresses who puts? Write frankly, what’s missing? Get well!” — these lines ailing Lenin to Armand brings in the biography of the Leader, the writer and journalist Boris Sopelnyak. So close relations (here, whether friendly or intimate) also explain why Armand was a place near the Kremlin wall.
And still the main reason that forced Lenin to personally order the funeral of Inessa Armand at the red square, bibliographers believe guilt. According to the American historian R. Elwood, Lenin felt not just a responsibility, but remorse due to the fact that unwittingly contributed to the death of Armand.
When in 1920 the tuberculosis Armand once again worsened, she wanted to go back to treating her informed the doctor, but Lenin persuaded (or ordered?) her to go for treatment in Kislovodsk sanatorium. He feared that in Paris and Armand is arrested. So already in 1918 – Armand on behalf of Lenin at the head of the red cross mission went to France, where she was arrested. And only threats of Ilyich “shoot” the entire mission of the French red cross in Moscow forced the French to release Armand. Lenin’s decision to send her for treatment in Kislovodsk was for Inessa Fedorovna fatal. During the trip she contracted cholera, and on 24 September he died in Nalchik.
our final respects to comrade Inessa
According to many contemporaries of Lenin, he took seriously the news of the “irreversible loss” and burial of the body of Armand at the red square – the least that Lenin could do to soothe his own conscience. Secretary III international Angelica Balabanova wrote that the day of the funeral the figure of Lenin had expressed “such a sadness that no one dared not even nod to him”, and closed with the cap pulled down over his eyes, “gone in painfully restrained tears.” Walking beside Lenin ally Armand, Kollontai noted later in his diary that “Lenin could not be found”. He walked with his eyes closed, “it seemed, here-here will fall.” Kollontai later wrote that “the death of Armand brought the death of Lenin, who painfully experienced the care of the “beloved woman”.
the last way Armand was seen off with full honors. The coffin was carried on the hands, the press has printed numerous obituaries and articles, listing her achievements, at the Union House, where they had carried him out, played with the orchestra of the Bolshoi theatre. Among imposed on the grave the wreaths were allocated one with a mourning ribbon “Comrade Inessa from V. I. Lenin.” In the remaining few years of life the Leader had not forgotten about the tomb of the “dear friend”: personally asked the Chairman of the city Council to dispose of on planting flowers and installing a modest headstone. Caring for children Armand took Krupskaya, who in life were friends with the one after death which “Volodya cried and looked at one point.”
© Russian Seven
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