History 10/01/20 what areas of the USSR children were trafficked from Moscow in 1941
the Rapidity with which in the first stage of the great Patriotic war, the Nazis moved to the Eastern regions of the USSR, sharply raised before the leadership the question of the removal from front-line areas of the child population. The solution to this problem, in addition to the transfer to safe areas of the elderly, skilled workers, vital for industrial production and value of material culture, was entrusted to promptly set up on 24 June 1941 the Council for the evacuation.
From a Memorandum, written July 19, 1941, in the name of Secretary Alexander Shcherbakov, it became evident that the evacuation of Moscow children were started on 30 June 1941, and during the first 19 days in the rear, sent about 200,000 children of different ages. The number of kids transported from the capital to the suburbs, to Ryazanschine, in the Yaroslavl and Tula region, there were also orphanages and boarding schools.
When after a few weeks it became obvious that the evacuation of nearby areas, organized on a hasty plan of the Moscow Council, has no practical meaning, previously evacuated children were back to bring in a white stone with a new batch to send in more robust cities.
Secure the rear
Such places on the map of the USSR was the Urals, the Volga region and Central Asia, the authorities had to provide shelter, food, medical services and educational programs.
2304 child from 16 orphanages in Moscow during the war have become citizens of the Kazakh SSR, and tens of thousands of kids were under the care of children’s institutions Gorky, Molotov (Perm Krai), Novosibirsk and Chelyabinsk regions, Mordovian, Mari, Chuvash and Tatar ASSR.
Validation, organized in mid-July 1941 the Department of schools of Central Committee VKP(b)phave prodemonstrirovala the lack of coherence in the conduct of evacuation measures in respect of children.
For lack of a mobilization plan the export of the younger generation of capitals were held with gross violations. Children planted on the train, they could not supply food and necessities, moreover they were not accompanied by medical personnel. Supervisors of children’s groups were appointed incompetent people without pedagogical education, each of which was responsible for 600 students.
these flaws when children’s evacuation contributed to the growth in the number of infectious diseases, failure in the diet, poor sanitary conditions, and even accidents with a fatal outcome due to permissive pedagogical supervision.
No better situation in the accommodation of children where there are similar problems.
However, on 30 July 1941 Vladimir Pavlyukov, who served in that period as Secretary of the Moscow city party Committee, reported to his superiors about fixing bugs. Evacuation of children was ordered view, each participant knew their duties, strict implementation of which facilitates the transportation to the East trains with the children. Department of Childhood Mosgorspravka watched that sick children would not fit in the cars with a healthy and of the physical condition and the first and second watched the doctors one doctor for 500 kids.
By the time the Germans got close to Moscow, Vasili Pronin, at that time Chairman of Mosgorsvet, issued a decree on the acceleration of children’s evacuation and send in safe areas of the country are not employed in the production of women with kids, in case of their refusal to leave the house, the police could threaten them with prosecution.
And things could be different
by the Way, Vasily Pronin was involved in another important document, which in his works, mention researchers Ksenia Sak and Nikita Pivovarov.
a few weeks before the announcement of nemtsAMI war-or rather, 3 June 1941, he gave Stalin a draft resolution of the Council of people’s Commissars of the USSR “On the partial evacuation of Moscow in wartime”, which was the initiative of convening a special Commission to evacuate citizens, a key military-economic enterprises and important political institutions.
According to the document, the total was supposed to withdraw from city 1 040 000 people, among which there were 432 000 students, preschoolers 226 000, 101 000 of pupils of kindergartens and nurseries, as well as 174 000 children with their mothers.
the Evacuation was proposed to carry out rail and bus transport, which relevant agencies had to give the order to include in its activities the possibility of an emergency removal of a large number of people. In addition, recommended pre-equipped with all the necessities of life clubs, rest homes and other areas of the Eastern regions of the country, where planned movement of echelons with evacuated children.
having Considered the note by Vasily Pronin, the Supreme commander Joseph Stalin imposed a resolution: “Your proposal of “partial evacuation of the population of Moscow in war-time” is considered late. The Commission on evacuation please liquidate, and talk about the evacuation to stop. When need be, and if need be, to prepare the evacuation of the Central Committee and the CPC will notify You.”
the feelings of children
Children suffering from the evacuation, at first I took it as an adventure with the change of location, scenery, circle of friends and activities. Ramzia muhutdinova in his essay “the Village Misaki – a second home for the evacuees” noted that “Tatar village evacuated in the beginning everything was new and alien, and interesting. They watched in amazement as our grandparents… sit on the floor and read namaz”.
But the children in the power of psychology quickly adapted to the new reality, get used to local traditions and mastered the languages and making new friends. Although they had a lot of free time, they helpGali adults in the home, Teens still in production.
Supervision of street
Those children, who by fate during the evacuation, lost parents, got in the zone of special attention of the authorities, have been ordered to fight the growing number of street children and to prevent neglect.
the Orphaned children according to the decree of 1941 “On the placement of children left without parents”, it was necessary to involve in socio-educational programmes and detract from the street.
© Russian Seven
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