History 30/12/19 How much really should education in the USSR
In our day taken remember with nostalgia the Soviet times, when everything was supposedly free. Meanwhile, the rate of surplus value alienation practiced in the first socialist country in the world, the envy of any capitalist.
Education in the Prussian lad
you can Often meet the claim that the USSR was the best education in the world. This is not so. It is the most adapted to the conditions of the administrative-planning system. Moreover, based on both school and higher education lay the Prussian the principles of the late nineteenth century, driven to the absolute comrade Stalin.
by the Way, during Stalin’s education was paid from 1940 to 1954. This was the instruction of 8-10 classes of secondary schools, in colleges and universities. For high school in a year had to pay 150 rubles, in Moscow, Leningrad and the capitals of the Union republics – 200 rubles. Average monthly salary in 1940 was 331 rubles, in 1945 – 434 of the ruble. But vocational school and school factory training (FZO) provided education and profession free – the country needed working hands. And this was forced recruitment, the call from 800 thousand to 1 million people in the age of 14-17 people per year, according to the Decree “On state labor reserves of the USSR.” After completion of DPT graduates were obliged to work on the production of 4 years. For many, the paid training was a barrier, limiting the formation of seven classes, and the villagers were deprived of the prospects – in the collective farms worked not for money but for their labor.
paid training canceled by Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR “On the abolition of tuition fees in the senior classes of secondary schools, secondary special and higher educational institutions of the USSR” in 1956. By this time the number of graduates of 8-10 classes of secondary schools, colleges and universities in the Soviet Union Socratesfounded almost half.
In the late Soviet Union, things were somewhat better. But here was a system of quotas, which were committed in universities and Colleges in the first place “tseleviki” — that is, to learning from the collective farms and the enterprises that graduate then come back and work a certain number of years. Learning is often paid gave the sending organization. Free a job with a diploma of secondary technical or higher education was not acted allocation system where the state decides where to direct the graduate.
For the rest of the masses of pupils and students, or their parents, education was free in name only. First, the government limited wages as a possibility of extra hours (to get additional 0,5 rates on private enterprise, it must submit a written statement to the trade Union and the party Committee and get the approval of these courts). Secondly, taxes have reached 40-45% of salary, including “voluntary” fees to the Red Cross, DOSAAF or other purposes. The financier and economist Andrei Movchan believes that by the eighties the Soviet citizens were actually ruined. Has steadily decreased the productivity of Soviet citizens, which also contributed to the prosperity of the economy. From 1951 to 1960, productivity has grown on average by 7.3% per year, and in the next decade by 5.6%. By 1975, productivity increased by 6%, but the country has slipped from the third position in the world on this indicator in the sixth. Education in the USSR was on average 7.5% of all government spending.
Medicine is for everyone but not for everyone
In the Soviet Union there was a serious disparity in the access of citizens to health services. And it’s not that the party and economic apparatus had better medical care than “classes–hegemony” — the workers and peasants. Very very different levels depending on place of residence. Even if not to take into account the capital cities, regional centres have been provicheny better than the district, those, in turn, superior medical care ordinary towns and villages and rural areas could be served only midwifery units, one per 10-15 villages. And this despite the fact that the financing of health care took an intermediate place between enlightenment and the science of medicine from 1966 to 1970 was 6.3% of public spending annually, according to the data of the CSO, is the peak of funding. After 1971 the expenditure on health and education has steadily decreased. The average medicine cost the state budget at 4.9% of spending. Andrei Movchan sure that this medicine is much better than in 1990. In the USSR, new technologies in health care with difficulty made their way. So, Kurgan Ilizarov surgeon had to spend a lot of effort to implement his method of bone healing and laser eye microsurgery according to the method of Fedorov became possible only after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Free medical services was highly conditional. Ball rules “blat” Dating and relationships allows to obtain higher quality medical services and medications. Gifts and offerings to the doctors, nurses and technical staff were in the order of things, although just a little money who would take – in the General commodity deficit, the money was almost not needed. But the scarce goods themselves – is another matter!
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