04/01/20 history How Genghis Khan was able to defeat all enemies
the Armies of Genghis Khan and his descendants was not equal in the whole of Eurasia. In the era of their rule, the Mongols never lost a major battle. Horde of the steppe was able to crush any, even many times superior in numbers army, no matter how talented commander they are not supervised. From India to Central Europe the bloodthirsty horse archers were not equal. What are the factors and reasons allowed nomads to become such an outstanding military excellence?
Life of the Mongols was difficult. The harsh climatic conditions of the great Steppe were forced to endlessly wander in search of good pastures and to endure infinite hardships. Mongol children learned to walk and to ride at almost the same time — different in the desert will not survive. In the saddle they spent much more time than the best riders of other Nations. The onion was for them a working tool, and almost the only way to have fun. In the result, the average Mongol warrior had a much higher combat skills than the best warriors opponents.
the Mongolian horse
Mongolian horse like his master. This is one of the hardiest breeds of horse in the world. She is able to pass vast distances, with poor food and a small amount of water. Without a horse in the desert lost. Therefore, the Mongols were deeply attached to their horses and understood them like no other.
in Addition to the harsh living conditions, another important characteristic of the Mongolian government was a tribal system. It was a lower stage of social development than feudalism, which was the absolute majority of their opponents. But Genghis Khan was able to turn the disadvantages of a generic system in dignity. He became a leader of leaders, uniting the tribes. This system was quite unlike the European feudal system, toOh “the vassal of my vassal — not my vassal” : Genghis Khan built an unprecedentedly clear and strict in those days the power vertical. Each level of management was responsible to the superior for the subordinate. Yes, the Mongols were the aristocracy. The owners of the pastures, the noble Northern lords and “nobles” nukers led the troops.
the Mongols are no surprise
There’s something else: a good neighborhood. The Mongols in their development was greatly retarded from the neighbors nation. But they were always aware of the news, which was created by their neighbors, the most advanced empires of the time — China and Khwarezm. The Mongols nothing could surprise or frighten: they were familiar with most military innovations of the era before Genghis Khan moved his Horde to conquer the world. This advantage should not be underestimated. In “Guns, germs and steel” Jared diamond wrote that Eurasia is so much ahead of other continents in their development due to the fact that it is stretched from East to West, not North to South. This greatly facilitates cultural exchanges: Nations with similar climate zones easier to communicate with each other. And the Mongols were living in the most crucial to this exchange area of the continent, as the Middle East, India, China, and, to a lesser extent, Europe.
the Mongol bows
This is the ancient weapons, the Mongols had perfected. They did not know how to forge iron, but the craftsmanship of the bows has surpassed all other Nations. According to various testimonies, the tensile force of the Mongolian bow was equal to 65-75 kg, while the tensile force of the best bows of Europe and China did not reach up to 40 kg. Luke other steppe peoples were much worse. Needless to say that the Mongols has a way with bows applied. The warriors could produce up to 12 arrows a minute, which is comparable to the rate of fire of the XX century. Besides, Mongols were taught from childhood it target shooting. Mongolian at least — is to get to a particular part of the body of a man at full gallop with 30 steps.
the Mongols were defeated in hundreds of bitsin, using fairly simple tactics, to oppose which the Europeans could not. Marco Polo described it this way: “In battle with the enemy prevail here as running away from the enemy, not ashamed, running away, turn and fire. Horses trained like dogs to roll in all directions. When they were persecuted, on the run, fighting is nice, Yes, much the same way as if stood face to face with the enemy, running and turns back, shoots accurately, hits, and the enemy’s horses and men; and the enemy thinks scattered and defeated, and he loses, from the fact that the horses he shoot, and killed people fairly”.
Over time, the Mongols perfected the tactic, invented other methods. They are always skillfully used its advantages.
© Russian Seven
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