Don-2N: what the best radar in the world

Weapons 17/12/19 mil.Gidon-2H: what the best radar in the world

On approach to Sheremetyevo airport in clear weather, somewhere between Moscow and Pushkino, you can see the impressive size of the building is square in shape, resembling a truncated pyramid. It – radar don-2N, unique in its kind structure.

Technological pyramid

According to the Treaty on the limitation of missile defense systems, signed between the USSR and the USA in 1972, the country had a right only to protect their capitals, as well as ground-based launchers for Intercontinental ballistic missiles. The radius of the missile complex was not supposed to exceed 150 km. of the USSR began to develop its missile defence system, known as A-135 (“Amur”), in 1971. General designer of the project was Anatoly Bassists.

One of the main elements of the complex A-135 was the radar station don-2N, designed to control the air space over Moscow and the Central industrial region of the country. Experience in the development of technologies of such level in the USSR was not, it required designers and engineers to solve complex problems of scientific, technical and organizational. In the early 1980s, the year began installing stations in the late 1980s, it was adopted only in 1996 was on combat duty.

the construction of the radar don-2N was spent 32 000 tons of steel, 50,000 tons of concrete, 20,000 kilometers of cable, hundreds of kilometers of pipelines. The station was built in the form of a quadrangular truncated pyramid with a side length of 140 meters and a height of 33 meters. Phased antenna arrays placed on each side of the pyramid, have a diameter of 18 meters.

the Most direct part in the development of radar don-2N was attended radio technician scientist Dmitry Zimin, at the time Deputy chief designer. He later became known as the founder trade Markey cellular operator “Beeline”. According to Zimin, each phased array antenna station contains 60,000 emitters, its task – to force to rotate the beam when the antenna is stationary.

Due to its advantage – the ability to simultaneously generate multiple beams of the radar capable of tracking up to 30 targets. The developers claim that the radar don-2N can detect an object the size of a ball for table tennis flying at a speed in excess of thousands of kilometers per hour on distance to 800 km, which makes it a device that has no analogues in the world. The American radar is now able to see the object with a diameter of not less than 10 cm.

In fact, the goals that should fix the don-2N will be much larger than a tennis ball that does not reduce the complexity of the task. The radar will need to not just accompany the warheads, but also to identify false targets, to avoid interference and to set the coordinates for the missile launch. These complex algorithms processes the supercomputer “Elbrus”, which the building occupies almost an entire floor. Radar don-2N monitoring not only the airspace over the Russian capital, but also protects uninvited guests from the sky in countries such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan and most Central Asian States are former Soviet republics. According to the forecasts of the creators, the station should operate for another few decades.

the Nuclear shield

System ballistic missile detection radar don-2N has a working wave range of 7.5 cm with a viewing angle of 360 in azimuth. The maximum range at which radar can detect Intercontinental ballistic missile – 3700 kilometers, the maximum height of target detection – 40 000 kilometers.

the Locator, and the supercomputer is integrated with the missile systems missile defense system, which are designed to destroy within the area of responsibility of the radar warheads. According to open sources, Moscow has seven silo launchers: missiles deployed near intercept in Skhodnya, Lytkarino, Moscow The Queen and members; long-range interception – in Naro-Fominsk and Sergiev Posad.

Missile short-range 53T6 “Cupid” (a total of 64 launchers) capable of hitting targets at altitudes up to 30 km and at a distance of 100 km; missile long-range 51T6 “Azov” (18 launchers) can destroy objects at altitudes up to 120 km and at a distance of up to 350 km. More recently, these two-stage solid propellant missile, capable of hitting a flock of true and false targets, had a thermonuclear warhead capacity of 1 MT.

the American physicist Ralph LEP has made calculations which showed that if such anti-missile missile to shoot down the warhead, not having spetzashita from soft x-rays, at an altitude of about 2 kilometers, that formed from the explosion of the fiery sphere in diameter exceeds 2 km 200 m In the case of explosion in the sky over Moscow will lead to the death of at least 10% of the population of the Russian capital, with a powerful electromagnetic pulse will damage the entire city’s power grid, and radioactive elements will be infected a large part of the metropolis. However, it should be noted that today missiles with thermonuclear filling combat duty near Moscow do not carry.

radar don-2N in peacetime operates in a limited radiated power. When threatened, the station is automatically placed into combat mode. Autonomous operation of all of its structures provide an independent system of energy and water, the staff station is also provided with a supply of food.

a Look ahead

Numerous exercises in the Kazakhstan range Sary Shagan confirm that missiles carrying on combat duty near Moscow on missile defence AND-135, capable of striking enemy warheads flying at a speed of about 6 km/s, they work successfully in both upper and lower echelons of interception. Radar don-2N is easily rebuilt from the clutter, differentiates between masquerading objectives, analyzes the composition of complex goals. In automatic mode, station, communicating with a computer, SPosobna to keep track of hundreds of elements of a complex ballistic targets simultaneously and to guide them to the 30 interceptors.

But Dmitry Zimin acknowledges that each of radars, there exists a finite bandwidth, and thus the “Dona” has limitations. According to him, a potential enemy along with Intercontinental ballistic missiles could launch several dozen or even hundreds of objects of shell, similar in mass and coating, thus generating active interference.

In such conditions, the radar will be extremely difficult to recognize where the true, where a false target. “In a massive RAID – the problem is almost unsolvable, says Zimin. – You only need one extra goal, and Moscow will not”. According to the Creator “don”, the Americans are well aware, and therefore its missile defense system they were built not to protect the cities, and to cover the launchers.

However, the calculation of the radar station don-2N conducts regular exercises to detect and repel massed nuclear missile attack from the enemy. The last such exercises, according to the TV channel “Zvezda” took place in 2018. On a legend of doctrines, the attack ballistic missiles were made from all major routes. Radar don-2N has successfully found any real purpose about weed, and took them to the accompaniment. Launches missiles plans exercises was not provided.

the head of the Department of combat algorithms and programs, Colonel Ildar Tagiyev, informed the media that currently the missile defense system A-135 is a deep modernization aimed at improving its performance and efficiency. Details not disclosed. The current modernization is that operating system components are gradually replaced with new, without losing its functionality.

Taras Repin

© Russian Seven

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