History 27/01/20 Chinese bandits in Russian Empire: why among them were many Russians
the Word “hunghutz” translates from Chinese as “red beard”. In China, the so-called people with red hair individuals. In the late XIX — early XX century, this word became topical in Russia, and is associated it was with the ferocious Chinese bandits terrorizing the far East.
Among the experts there are several versions of the origin of the name. Some argue that hunghutz had tried to disguise his appearance during the predatory raids with wig beard, borrowed from the wardrobe of the actors of traditional theater. Other historians believe that the thing in the red fringe, which many bandits loved to decorate their rifles. And when hunghutz was aiming at the enemy, it seemed that he had a red beard.
There is also a version that the inhabitants of Manchuria and the Far East in XVII — XVIII centuries suffered from Russian “dashing men” and English the profit seekers, many of whom were bearded, and the word “hunghutz” later became the designation of all the bandits.
Dressed these criminals as well as ordinary Chinese. The only difference was often the only weapon many of the soldiers went and hung with ammunition.
Despite the fact that most hunghutz were Chinese, the criminal community was not something closed to representatives of other Nations. It was a real bandit international, a series which took Koreans, Japanese, Russians, Mongols, etc.
the Border of China and Korea has long been a refuge for fugitives of both countries, and in parts of Mongolia adjacent to Manchuria, was operating a mixed group. Russian gangsters, too, without problems became hunghutz, they were joined by representatives of ethnic criminal communities, formed exiled to Siberia criminals. In particular, the number ofx Chinese mafia, it was possible to meet representatives of the peoples of the Caucasus.
Especially suffered from hunghutz employees of the Chinese Eastern railway, which was built by Russian engineers. By agreement of the governments of the two countries work was carried out from 1897 to 1903.
In the book “beyond the Chinese border. White Harbin” said: “all along the line of the CER, almost no areas that don’t sway hunghutz, and no one of her station could not move away in 2-3 kilometers without serious risk of falling into the hands hunghutz. Civilians on the line of the CER was under constant threat henhussy raids. Very frequent even cases stop hunghutz in train that had been looted and the passengers were taken to the prisoner”.
it is Interesting that in 1902 a major gang seized the town of Bodona. However, the appeared in time security guards KVZHD defeated the robbers, killing around a hundred people and capturing 20 members of a criminal gang. Seven captured hunghutz were Caucasians. And in the spring of 1907 in the vicinity of the city of Harbin was destroyed by the combined Russian-Chinese gang, the leader of which was of the fairer sex.
the hunghutz had often joined by deserters who fled from the Russian, Chinese, Japanese armies. Together with them they grab a firearm.
Organized crime is always characterized by a rigid hierarchy, strict observance of its own laws, iron discipline. Valuable information about the inner workings of the Chinese gangs can be gleaned from the essay “Hunghutz”, which was written by the engineer V. N. Miners. This man was engaged in the coal developments in Manchuria after the Russo-Japanese war. His article was published in the monthly journal “Historical journal” (No 6 in 1910). “I had two years to live side by side with hunghutz, closely connect with them, understand them, learn to respect them, to fear and to force them, in turn, is fear itself”, — informed readers V. N. Rudokapon.
According to the author, in the early twentieth century, the Chinese mafia was a powerful force to be reckoned with all. According to rough estimates, only in Manchuria hunghutz, there were more than 30 thousand people, and they were all well armed. The number of individual units reached 700 men, and in addition to rifles and revolvers, some of them had machine guns and even artillery.
a Large number of Russian three-lined rifles were at hunghutz after the Russo-Japanese war. Some of them, the Chinese picked up on the battlefield, the other “trunks” are bought from unscrupulous suppliers army or stolen from warehouses. Moreover, Japanese officers themselves often supplied some of the gang weapons in exchange for a promise not to wield in a certain area.
the Struggle of the Chinese authorities hunghutz for a long time was only of a declarative indicative in nature. The activities of these gangs than was beneficial to the government of China, because they provided for the colonization of Manchuria without any funding from the state Treasury. However, for the demonstration of the rule of law from time to time arranged indicative execution of peasants who were accused of aiding hunghutz.
for the second half of the nineteenth century, these bandits had clear legislation in many respects similar to the criminal concepts of Russian authorities. At hunghutz have had a special allegorical language, a kind of thieves Fenya, based on borrowing from the dialects of neighbouring peoples. Each mafia group had its own name, usually frightening. The most famous in the history of the left: “the head of the snake”, “wolf” and “Angry dog”. Subordinate to the leader of each gang was the Deputy, someone like Secretary, Treasurer, heads of separate units and ordinary soldiers.
In the book D. V. Ershova told about the group leader which was Zhang Baima (White Horse). The established criminal code consists of 13 articles and contained strict prohibitions. For example, it was impossible to Rob the women, children, the elderly and lone travelers. Any injustice against women was punishable by death. Foreigners, Zhang Baima chose to ignore, not wanting the complications of the international situation and diplomatic problems. Still, despite the negative attitude to the officials, most hunghutz were patriots of their country.
After the start of construction of the CER, which the Chinese perceived as an attempt by Russia’s expansion in Manchuria, the laws of the local mafia changed. New targets for the attack were Russian merchants, government officials, representatives of our country. Usually they were kidnapped with a ransom demand. After receiving the money, usually hunghutz let go of their victims. They sought to act carefully so as not to cause disturbances among the civilian population.
Like a gang of Robin hood, the Chinese criminals fancied himself the people’s Avengers to punish corrupt bureaucrats and dishonest “business sharks”. A large number of illegal miners are extracting gold along the banks of the rivers Suifun and Selinga, like the poachers of the Ussuri region, is also considered to be hunghutz, because they were outside the law.
Production is not simply divided between members of the gang depending on their status and contribution — part of the loot was done in a sort of “common Fund”, rozhodovania to help the relatives of fallen comrades, the treatment of the wounded, and the funding of the activities of spies who supplied hunghutz information.
For disobeying the orders of the leader, cowardice, theft of money from the General Treasury, and betrayal hunghutz waited for death at the hands of their comrades. Each gang was an executioner.
Hunghutz engaged not only in robbery, smuggling, racketeering and illegal extraction of gold and furs. They could also for a small fee to ensure the safety of goods, it was enough to negotiate with the right people. Sometimes large gangs attacked the city, capturing captured hundreds of people. The end of kunhunniof assets came just after the final establishment of the Communist government over the entire territory of China.
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