Capanna war: what happened in 1919, in the homeland of Lenin

History 13/02/20 Capanna war: what happened in 1919, in the homeland of Lenin

in the Spring of 1919 on the territory of Simbirsk and Samara provinces broke out a large-scale peasant uprising, called by historians Chaponnay war. Dissatisfied with the Bolshevik policy of requisitioning the peasants, numbering 150,000 people, organized spoke out against the outright robbery by the authorities, but the lack of real weapons did not allow them to win this battle.


Tormented by the Civil war the new socialist country in every way was seeking funds not only to sustain failure but also to overcome the prevailing food crisis. Entering the state monopoly on the sale of bread, the Soviet leadership may 13, 1918 issued a special decree granting the people’s Commissar of food of exceptional powers in the struggle against the rural bourgeoisie or kulaks hid the grain and other food products.

Almost a year representatives of the Agency were brutally taken from the peasants the surplus, in most cases, those who were not, were harvested according to the plan and redistributed food, easily suppressing the scattered resistance of rural residents.

However, on 3 March 1919, the situation got out of control and in his native province of Vladimir Lenin, namely in the Novodevichy village Sengiley district, Simbirsk province, blew up the vessel people’s patience. The main participants of disobedience to the authorities became peasants-peasant, dressed in a simple long winter coat – caftan that gave its name to this rebellion.

the Uprising

When the group of authorized tax collection arrived the village and abusing their power capabilities, began to demand from the population, grain and cattle, some of the peasants struck the Church bell and started a mutiny.

Disoriented by the swiftness of events, Prodotraduci was arrested. Along with them was detained and the local Communists, including members of the volost Executive Committee.

after Capturing the Telegraph, March 4, the rebels disarmed arrived to help her, the chief of the County Cheka Kazimirov and kraskoma Pavlova, members of troops who refused to shoot the peasants and went on their way. On the same day, the villagers organized the re-election of the parish Council to determine the person who will represent their interests in negotiations with the authorities in Simbirsk.

Trying to buy time, the agitator M. Alekseev from the squad Pavlova, persuade opponents not to hurry, and try to understand what had happened on their own, for which he proposed on 5 March a joint Commission to resolve the problem.

the Peasants believed his fiery speeches about the possible triumph of justice and has postponed a trip to Simbirsk, however, already on March 5, after the arrests of people who speak out against the surplus, the rebels brought a high-ranking prisoners to the river Bank and shot.

From that moment capanne the rebellion has become irreversible and uncompromising character, the counter-revolutionaries organized his staff and formed a “peasant army”.

Chain reaction

After the village Novodevichy chain reaction broke out riots in a number of parishes Sengileevsky County where the events unfolded under a similar scenario. Seeing how the soldiers from different formations, one after another, support the rebels, the inhabitants of Simbirsk and Samara provinces had inspired, and the territory embraced the present anti-Bolshevik fire.

Armed mostly with axes, sticks, pitchforks, cudgels, and pikes, the peasants in the course of the war Chaponnay knocked out railroad tracks and bridges, captured the city of Stavropol (now Togliatti), overthrew the Soviet power and established the reign of the rebel government body — the “Council of workers’ and peasants ‘ deputies.”

the Military commandant was elected Alexei Dolinin, which alternations just created the anti-Bolshevik newspaper “news of the Stavropol Executive Committee” encouraged to disobey the Communists, announced the mobilization of the peasant army and the replacement of the surplus tax in kind.

the Ultimate goal of the rebels was a reunion with the army of the white army Alexander Kolchak, which was required to seize major cities — Samara and Syzran.

the reaction of the authorities

Until March 10 the authorities failed to take control of the uprising that swept the middle Volga region, but later, the efforts of the commander of the 4th army of the Eastern front, Mikhail Frunze and the Chairman of the Samara provincial Committee of the party of Valerian Kuibyshev, the situation began to change.

With the aid of regular troops of the red army, the Bolsheviks abandoned to the suppression of “kulak rebellion” machine-gunners and artillery, to stand against which, not having firearms, the peasants did not have the slightest chance.

the work of the historian Viktor Danilov noted that the Bolsheviks were involved in the RAID over 20 000 trained soldiers and executioners, who, without being distracted by secondary hotbeds of counter-revolution, decided to immediately return to their hands Stavropol.

a Massive attack of the Bolsheviks immediately bore fruit, on the way to the capital of the rebellion, government troops scored one victory after another, and March 14 in the city was restored by the Soviet government.

Perpetrate a brutal massacre of disparate rebel groups, the red army to March 20, fully suppressed the uprising.

the Victim Chaponnay war

Reporting to Vladimir Lenin on the successful completion of the operation, army commander Mikhail Frunze said: “the suppression of the movement were killed, while according to incomplete data, at least 1,000 people. In addition, executed over 600 leaders and fists. Usinskoye village, where the rebels were first exterminated our unit 110 people, burned perfectly.”

However, in Peru owned by French authors “Black book of communism” are far more horrific numbers that they compriseRuili made in 1919, the report of the head of the Samara security officers. According to Chaponnay during the war were arrested and sent to camps 6210 bandits and deserters who were executed 625 people were killed in the fighting 4240 rebels.


the leader of the peasant revolt Alexei Dolinin on the day of the storming of the Stavropol left town, and got to the native village. There he met were in the vacation of a red army soldier Alexey Shabanov, who did not want to return to duty. Taking a vacation to the identity of the man, Dolinin under a new name became a soldier. At the front he had to fight against the troops of Denikin, the white to be captured and to escape, to recover in the red army, to prove himself in the Polish direction and to wound.

Once in the hospital, Dolinin decided to end the deception and sent the Executive Committee a statement where he confessed to the forgery of documents and participation in Chaponnay war. 20 APR 1920 he was pardoned, and soon returned home. However, in December 1930, he remembered the past, was arrested and tried. According to one Dolinina justified, although local historian Ovsyannikov insisted that he was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment.

To determine the causes of the uprising of the Cheka was sent to the Volga region own Commission. The staff of the Commission presented on 9 may 1919 the name of Felix Dzerzhinsky detailed report. It was harshly criticized by the local authorities, which, in the opinion of the Commission, aroused the indignation of the peasantry: the point was made that the peasants of the insurgent villages in the majority of the property as of the middle peasants.

Ashkhen Avanesova

© Russian Seven

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