History 26/12/19 As the “Siberian divisions” saved Moscow in autumn 1941
About Siberian division, who in 1941 defended Moscow and played a decisive role in the defeat of the Nazis, written so much that an untrained person is easy to get lost in a sea of information. And since much of this information is from the pen of journalists, not historians, emotions and confusion in her more than facts. But with this confusion and want to understand.
According to the author of many popular science books about the war, Alexei Isaev, the term “Siberian divisions” actually invented by the Germans. They believed that the turning point in the battle for Moscow was achieved by the transfer of a large number of fresh divisions from the Far East. For the Germans, every man in the sheepskin coat was a Siberian. Do residents of Siberia, of course, do not refuse this honor, and on various Internet resources and media, you can find a lot of articles that thanks to soldiers-Siberians Moscow was saved and the enemy defeated.
on the one hand, that division from the Far East and Transbaikalia in the battle for Moscow was indeed particularly notable. But on the other hand, many claims made about Siberian divisions incorrect.
To the Siberian divisions and brigades sometimes include any connections that were formed in the Siberian Federal district and the far East. However, if you collect them all together and not look at individual examples, it is to say that the Siberian connection fought somehow better than others, it is impossible. And with all due respect to Siberians, it is unclear what the residents of Novosibirsk and Omsk are fundamentally different from the inhabitants of Arkhangelsk and Vologda. Fought heroically at the front not only of a division from Siberia. The same Panfilov division, if anyone knows, was formed in Central Asia. In the battle of Moscow (and not only) was not part of who fled from the battle or surrendered EN masse in captivity. On the contrary, fought to the last and, even once in the environment, the weapon was not abandoned, and left in the forest partisans.
Another important point: it is wrong to think that division which is formed, for example, in Irkutsk, fought exclusively Siberians.
In the battle of Smolensk, fought 24th army, six divisions which was formed in the Siberian district. After the battles of yelnia division suffered heavy losses, had broken all the personnel of the infantry and machine-gun mouth. Restored division through reinforcement, which could be from Vologda, at least from the Urals. During the battle at Moscow, all military units suffered losses and was regularly replenished. This can be seen in example 316 Panfilov division, which was written more than others. Or that the numbers formed in Siberia, the 376th infantry division, who fought with the 2nd shock army. On January 1, 1942 in division 10 of 530 people. On 1 February, is 3190 people. In February funded, but by March 1 left 3,310 in March, twice received marching replenishment, but by 1 April in the ranks only 3960 people, and by may 1, 6968 personnel. Because marching replenishment could come from anywhere, and the soldiers, wounded, but recovered, in their part was not sent, it is clear that the original composition is almost nobody left.
But there were some divisions transferred from the Far East, which played an important role. What was their value?
Many parts and connections that time was formed again, even if worn rooms of the former divisions. Formed on a reduced staff and still was not fully equipped, especially with artillery. In service there were many exotics in the form of various foreign models: German, French, Austrian (more precisely, Austro-Hungarian) and English. For example, in the Panfilov division was 75-millimeter French field guns. Formed division in the rush of time practicing the smooth interaction of the units was not simple.
And then arrives from the Far Eastand the 32-th infantry division, completed another States in 1940. In it staffing and broad standard weapons, including 56 T-26 and 16 floating T-38. By that time, not all German Panzer divisions had as many tanks on the go.
in addition to this division, under Moscow had deployed personnel 78th, 93rd, 239 infantry, 82nd infantry, and the 58th armored divisions. And and the 112th Panzer division.
According to the Combat composition of the Soviet army in 1941, other staff divisions under Moscow was not transferred. From the Far East were sent to the front six infantry divisions (21st, 26th, 62nd, 65th, 92-I and 114-I), but not under the Moscow and North-Western direction, where they also made a very important, often decisive contribution.
In the battle for Moscow the 32nd, 78th and 93rd infantry, 82nd infantry, and 112th tank division, played a very prominent role. All these divisions later became guards, and armored division, becoming the 112th tank brigade, passed a glorious way and after the battle of Kursk became the 44th guards tank. Therefore, the contribution of the Siberian divisions really very great.
© Russian Seven
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