As the Decembrists wanted to rebuild Russia after the victory

03/01/20 history As the Decembrists wanted to rebuild Russia after the victory

on 14 December 1825, a secret officers ‘ organization brought to the Senate square in St. Petersburg guards regiments, in order to prevent the oath to Nicholas I. a Thorough study of documents and events have allowed Yakov Gordin in the works “people and Events of December 14” and “Mutiny of reformers” in the 1980s to justify a plausible theory that only the chain of unforeseen accidents prevented the Decembrists to take power. It’s easy to believe because the successful Palace coups have occurred in Russia throughout the 18th century.

Take the power was really

an alternative historical scenario put the option that the Decembrists would hold power for a long time, otherwise there will be nothing to consider. In this case, no matter which way they did it. They could, for example, some time to act as Senate square, “on behalf of the legitimate Emperor Constantine”.

Almost certainly the real higher power for some time after the coup belonged to the Supreme Provisional government, which intended to establish the Decembrists. Judging by the fact that the Board had been such prominent statesmen as count Mikhail Speransky and Admiral Nikolai Mordvinov, the Decembrists hoped for a close Alliance with the liberal circles of the bureaucracy. Such a Union could provide for a particular period, the stability of the new government.

In the first days after the successful coup the Decemberists have announced about the abolition of serfdom and the election in the National Cathedral. Then there are several potential scenarios for the course of events.

Scenario of a liberal constitutional monarchy

the conspirators Themselves did not have a single plan of reorganization of Russia. In the “North society” of the likeness of the policy document was “the Constitution” by Nikita Muraviev. She assumed excellentincrement of Russia into a constitutional monarchy. If this plan had been fully implemented, the Russian Empire back in the 2nd quarter of the 19th century would become the legal government of the European type.

the Ants were going to reorganize Russia on the principle of Federation. The country was divided into 15 major States (“powers”) with broad rights of local legislation. The head of state was the Emperor, but the amount of its power was approximately equal to that of the President of the United States. In General, the U.S. Constitution became one of the main sources of Muraviev when working on a document. The right to vote had only known owners of the property qualification, but elected deputies of the legislative institutions could all citizens.

Russia could become one of the most liberal States in the world. Laid down in the Constitution Muraveva principles have enabled the state to evolve peacefully, without revolutionary upheavals.

the Script is a radical revolutionary dictatorship

But the plans in the history never realized the way I would like their compilers. In the implementation of the Constitution Muraveva would interfere with the attendant circumstances. Perhaps the most important among them was the presence among the radical wing of the Decembrists. In the “North society” of its representatives was Kondraty Ryleev and Kakhovsky Peter. In the “southern society” is a direction prevailed, and its leader Pavel Pestel wrote a draft of the Constitution — “the Russian Truth”.

According to the plan of Pestel, Russia had become a Republic. The entire Royal dynasty, in order to prevent the restoration of the monarchy, had to be exterminated physically to the last man. The Supreme organ of power was the popular Assembly, elected by universal suffrage.

Pestel believed that all the peoples of Russia should be merged into the “single Russian people”. To accelerate the merger and Pestel proposed draconian measures to resist. Jews who do not want to Krestitelja, and Gypsies, for his project, was scheduled to be deported from Russia. Toabkhazskie the people who, according to Pestel, had the most “violent temper”, had to be evicted from their homes and resettled in small groups throughout Russia with the goal of early and complete their assimilation.

In notebooks Pestel found another interesting project of the institution of the secret police under the name of “Public order of the deanery”. This body was to exercise total secret surveillance of all citizens. Pestel’s views were influenced by the example of the Jacobin dictatorship in France, but it can also be considered the ideological precursor of not only the Bolsheviks and the Cheka, and the Nazi with the Gestapo.

a Series of bloody revolutions were inevitable, but would already be the distant past

Almost all revolutions have led to the fact that the revolutionaries began to fight to the death among themselves for power. The revolution ended in a dictatorship. It could be a dictatorship either revolutionaries or counter-revolutionaries.

the Confusion started by the Decembrists, almost certainly would have led to a dictatorship. For the realization of liberal dreams in Russia was not the appropriate social strata.

Among the Decembrists able to establish a dictatorship was only the radicals. Their Republic, based on the “Russian Truth” Pestel, would be a new edition of the autocracy. In this case, Russia would be provided a series of bloody revolutions and coups.

Sooner or later the country with its archaic social structure would expect a reactionary coup. Very soon, the Decembrists could encounter resistance from the landlord class, dissatisfied with the abolition of serfdom. And not the fact that the farmers themselves would have taken this release from someone’s hands, except the king. Don’t believe they are in 1812 in will, given to them on behalf of Napoleon.

so, at some point there would be a rollback to the old as much as possible. In this case, in front again would be the decade of revolts, revolutions, contrarevolution in many variations.

the Only good this would be what this whole series of revolutionary upheavals have swept over Russia a hundred years earlier than in reality. To date, she would have made an already distant past.

Yaroslav Butakov

© Russian Seven

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