History 15/01/20 Why the Cossacks turned the cities of Italy in the village of
In the turbulent years of the Second world war in many cities of Northern Italy sounded Russian speech. Here, on the Adriatic coast, found refuge tens of thousands of Cossacks, who went to the West together with the German troops.
the Road to Italy
After the occupation by the Wehrmacht of the don and Kuban in 1942, a huge number of Cossacks greeted the Germans as liberators from Bolshevism. Created by the Nazis, the Cossack camp under the leadership of General Peter Krasnov guard is first in Ukraine, then in Belarus and Poland. To keep the loyalty of the Cossacks, the German command decided to send them away from the Eastern front. The Cossacks have taken in the Italian province Udine (historical region of Friuli). Formally, it belonged to the Republic of Salò, but is actually controlled by the Germans, being members of the so-called “operational zone Adriatic coast”.
In September-November of 1944 in Northern Italy were the first Cossack units – about 30 thousand people, including old men, women and children. Who knows, did they on the Donets, participated in the Italian campaign of Suvorov in 1799. However, unlike the ancestors, Krasnov’s Cossacks came to Italy not as liberators.
“apparently, one of the reasons for the transfer of the Cossacks in this region was the desire of the German command to provide here, as in Belarus, the forces of the Cossack order. Northern Italy, like Belarus, were overrun by guerrillas, which greatly contributed to local conditions (in Belarus – forests, in the Northern Italian mountains),” says researcher Oleg Ratushnyak.
it is Noteworthy that according to Nazi ideology, the Cossacks were considered the closest “relatives” of Italians – and those in other allegedly flowed the blood of the ancient Goths.
“the Cossack land” in exile
after a few days the Cossacks began life safetyto ivalsa in the occupied territories. Small towns of the province of Udine they renamed the village. “Capital” was Alessio (Alessio), who with the light hand of the district ataman of the don Cossack villages of Mikhail Rotov “turned” in Novocherkassk. New name inscribed on the banner, stretched at the entrance to the city. The main square of Alassio became an area of name of ataman Platov. The Cossacks were evicted from the city almost all Italians, leaving only the interpreter and the Baker. Cavazzo was renamed Krasnodar, Trasaghis – in Novorossiysk. “Villages” were also Tolmezzo, Catalase, Cividale, San Daniele, Buje, Maiano and other settlements.
Classes of men-the Cossacks depended on their age. 14-16 year-olds studied in the military-artisan school, 17 years old, they attended a cadet school in the town of Vila Santina. Protection of villages was entrusted to the most senior – 45-60-year-olds. The main part of the men had served, making raids against the partisan brigades “of Osoppo” and “Garibaldi”.
the Historian Mikhail Shkarovsky said that the Cossacks had hoped to settle in Italy for a long time. They tended gardens, raised vegetables. Improving cultural and Church life. With the approval of the marching ataman Timofey Domanova came out in the magazine “Cossack land”. Every village had its own priest, was erected field Church, sometimes Orthodox services were held in Catholic churches.
“In General, in the province of Udine Dobanovci left a very contradictory memory: from inter-ethnic marriages to crimes against the population, including not only the frequent attempts on the property, but also cases of rape and murder,” writes historian Kirill Alexandrov.
However, to the Italians, as a people, Cossacks hatred experienced. Going to Austria in may 1945, they left the inhabitants of the town of Timau all the cash in Italian lire – the money subsequently was built the Church of the blessed virgin. At the same time, the guerrillas, taking advantage of the moment, hastened to arrange the massacre of newcomers from the East. The rebels burned hospital in Ovaro, locking doors in it, resulting in burned alive 20 patients Cossacks.
we Add that life in Italy was obviously the happiest time for the Cossack camp. In Lienz where Cossacks had arrived, they waited for the results of the Soviet Union, then the death or Stalin’s camps.
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