History 02/01/20 Why the Chechens were so afraid of General Yermolov
General Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov (1777-1861), hero of the Patriotic war and the conqueror of the Caucasus, was in the highest degree extravagant personality for the top light.
“Sir, make me a German!”
Perhaps the rumors had been exaggerated these episodes, making Yermolov expression of the General sentiment. In the Russian army strongly disliked Alexander I for his patronage of foreign officers. On the eve of the war of 1812 the Russian army was accepted by many Prussian officers, who did not want to serve Napoleon. Alexander I gave all the high positions and ranks, sometimes higher than those which they had in the Prussian army.
Some of these officers and generals possessed extraordinary abilities (example Carl von Clausewitz), but most were mediocre or worse. One of them, General Pfuel, unfairly close to the king, their advice almost ruined the Russian army early in the war of 1812.
Such cases gave rise to a real or imaginary phrase somehow Yermolov to Tsar in response to a wish to indicate what would be the rewards wanted Ermolov.
— Your Imperial Majesty, make me into a German!
Ermolov, knowing about this rumor, never denied his authorship of this phrase.
“Descendant of Genghis Khan”
whatever it was, Alexander I appreciated the ability Yermolov, and official favors that count Alexei Arakcheev temporary worker, who was said to Ermolov, too, not just burn your barbs. At the end of the wars with Napoleon Arakcheev even recommended king Yermolov to the post of military Minister. But Alexander I presciently saw Yermolov different vocation and appointed to command in the Caucasus.
But first Moses had to fulfill an important diplomatic errand to the Persian king Shah. The case concerned the refusal of Persia from attacks on Northern Azerbaijan ceded to Rossafter AI war 1804-1813 gg. Not having the experience of a diplomat, Yermolov innocently told the Shah Feth Ali that he is a descendant of Genghis Khan. He reminded the Shah, as Persia was crushed by the Mongols, and that he, Moses, is ready to personally repeat the same thing. Shah as innocently had taken the suggestion and reacted to Yermolov with great respect.
the purpose of the mission was successfully performed and witnessed the king himself, making Yermolov in 1818, in the rank of General of infantry for his Embassy. And Yermolov was convinced that “asiaticae” we need to speak only from a position of strength, what principle he would then invariably.
cruelty to the highlanders
when Ermolov went to the Shah, and then had to return to his new assignment – commander of a Separate Caucasian corps – the Chechens attacked his headquarters and captured its chief, Colonel Shevtsova. As is usual in such cases, the Chechens have requested a ransom for the release.
But Ermolov did not follow the usual Russian administration tactics of negotiations with the mountaineers. On his orders, troops attacked several villages and took hostages eighteen respected elders. Yermolov commanded to declare that if Shevtsov is released up to a certain period, all Chechen hostages will be hanged. Shevtsova was released without any compensation.
After that Yermolov laid the basis for the pacification of Chechnya steep methods. On his orders, if the Chechen family refused to issue any of its members who have committed not only an attack on Russian soldiers, but also the theft of Russian and Cossack villages, the whole family was subject to arrest. If the inhabitants of the village sheltered a family or let her escape, we were obliged to give her relatives. If the relatives of the disappeared, the village was to be destroyed. Moreover, the captured men were told not to take.
the General had summoned the elders considered innocent Chechen villages, suspecting them of complicity with armed gangs, and threatened to burn all their houses and expel the population in the mountains, where they will destroy hunger and disease. “Better from the Terek to the Sunzha leave a scorched desert than suffer at the rear of the Russian troops murder and looting,” allegedly he told them.
Ermolov to word of the case did not disperse, conducted an exemplary campaign of intimidation. In 1819 he was ordered to destroy the village of Dada-Yurt, who gave asylum to the members, as they say, “illegal armed formations”. The inhabitants of the village was given an ultimatum about voluntary eviction, but they rejected it. After a fierce battle, which killed a quarter of the Russian army, took part in it, the village was razed to the ground, together with most of the population.
Historians have different opinions of the results of operations of Yermolov. Some believe that his methods led to the successful conquest of the Caucasus, and only the removal of Yermolov in 1826 stretched this process for another four decades. Others argue that the brutality of Yermolov caused the subsequent outburst of fanaticism of the mountaineers, a religious movement of Muridism and Shamil phenomenon.
the Native harem and illegitimate children of General
however, Ermolov had not experienced any racist hatred of the inhabitants of the Caucasus. Especially to its inmates. On the contrary. The famous General was never officially married. But in the Caucasus he had a harem of local women. However, there Yermolov was not original, but followed the local fashion Russian officers, too, openly lived with native concubines.
In Shiite Muslim law, Yermolov was married twice by temporary marriage kulichkah. However, the fact of marriage is disputed, as the Kumyks are Sunni. His first wife was Suga. From it in 1820 from Yermolov in Tiflis, a son was born. Bakhtiar Viktor Ermolov (1820-1892) was formalized as a legitimate son of General and later also became a General. His son Vladimir also chose military service and in 1917 was promoted to General, fought in the White army.
Second wife was Total. They say that the girl’s father, giving the commander consent, then hid it from him, and the envoys of Yermolov kidnapped Today. From Today the General had two sons, whom he named in honor of ancient Roman emperors Claudius and the North. Claudius Ermolov (1823-1895) also reached the rank of General in the Russian army.
Peter, a son from the third time (“kibinai”) wife Ermolova – Sultanol – died in infancy. Daughter of the native wives of the commander remained, by agreement, in Islam. Yermolov then let their wives to the family, and they are married to their co-religionists.
the Tyranny of General
Some quirks Yermolov he himself could hardly find an explanation. The only one – when for some reason he ordered the regiments that were in his command, to switch names was the last straw Petersburg dignitaries General, on which it rained complaints and denunciations. In 1826 he was thrown from his command.
© Russian Seven
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