Nature 26/10/19 Why Russian live where they can survive no other
We live in a unique country — nowhere else in the world in cold regions lives a number of people as we have in Russia. And climate as nowhere else. According to data cited in the article, “Possible changes in natural conditions on the territory of Russia” climatologist Vera V. Vinogradova, only a small part of Russia is in the most favourable and favourable climatic zones is the South and South-West of Central Russia. Even the part of the Central Chernozem region falls in a relatively fertile area. The rest of the territory is a zone of conditionally unfavorable, unfavorable, very unfavorable, and absolutely unfavorable climate. In fact, Russians live there, which can survive no other.
Take two of the most Northern cities in the U.S.: Bellingham on the West coast of the country, located at 4876′ North latitude. and Presque Isle in the East (4669′ N. lat.). According to the National Weather Service, the average annual temperature is +6,7° C and +4.1° C. This is a small town and the climate in which most Americans would consider uninhabitable.
In Seattle (4734′ North latitude), where he lives 608 thousand people, the average temperature is already +10,9° C, and in East coast of America — Boston (4221’s. W), where the happy lives of 625 thousand Americans, on average, the air warms up to +9.8° C. In new York (4043′ N. lat.) 8 405 837 new Yorkers enjoy an average annual temperature is +12,1° C.
of Course, in Alaska and in Canada are much colder. In the city of Vancouver (4918’s. sh.) the average temperature is already +9,9° C, and in Nome (Alaska, 6430’s. W,) — -3,2° C.
According to the Us National oceanic and atmospheric administration, Alaska the coldest place is the Prospect Creek, the lowest temperature, which is the RAwhether in 1971 — -62° C. However, the average in Alaska is quite warm: the average temperature here varies from +2,9° C +4,6° C to -2.9° C. In Greenland in the capital Nuuk (6418’s. sh.) the average annual temperature is 1.2° C, and in the town of Maniitsoq (6525’s. sh.) this temperature is, which is 2.7° C.
In the North of Europe the climate is quite warm. No wonder in London are avenues of yews and you can find palm trees. In Paris (4850’s. n), according to the NFO Limat, the annual average temperature +12° C, cold a maximum that is ever been -23,8° C, and it was a real disaster.
“the North” the city of London (5130’s. sh.) can please an average temperature of +11° C, and night temperature in winter rarely falls below -7° C, Amsterdam (5223’s. sh.) pleased with the temperature of +9,1° C, and Hamburg (5333’s. W) temperature of +8,3° C.
warm Enough and in the North of Europe. In the Norwegian city of tromsø (6963′) average above — zero temperature of +2.1° C. In the Finnish city of Oulu (65-ya parallel) is also heat +1,9° C.
Compare these average annual temperatures from the cities of Russia, which are at the same latitude. According to Roshydromet, the heat only in the Crimea, on the black sea coast and at the mouth of the Volga. In Sevastopol, the average temperature is +11° C, Sochi +14.4° C, in Astrakhan — +10° C. In the Altai village of Kosh-Agach, which is located on the 49th latitude, which is comparable to Northern US cities, — +1,6° C, in Kyzyl at 51 latitude — -2,5° C, in Irkutsk, located on the 52nd parallel +0,6° C. In Moscow at the 55 th parallel, the air in the middle just warms up to +4.9° C, comparable to Alaska. In Yekaterinburg on the 56th parallel, the average temperature is +2,8° C, which is almost the same as in tromsø, which is located at 15 degrees North. The average temperature in Orenburg on the 51st parallel, the 4.7° C, which is two times colder than Hamburg, although the German city is located two degrees North. In even colder Siberia: in Novosibirsk (56. W.) — The +0.9° C, in Krasnoyarsk (55 n) — +1,4° C, in Chita (52. sh.) -1,9° C. In Primorye, where, apparently, from the sea should be warm, as in Sochi, it’s actually cool, in Vladivostok, where the average temperature for the year of 5.6° C, and in Khabarovsk colder — +1,6° C.
In Nizhnevartovsk (60 N. lat.) on average, the air is below zero, which is 2.7° C. In the Turukhansk (65 n) on -6,3° C. In Yakutsk (62 N. lat.) freeze any resident of Alaska: here the average annual temperature is -10,2° C. a Temperature record here was in 1900 — -51,2° C. In Magadan, the average temperature for the year and 2.8° C. Now let’s look at the country of this cold. In Murmansk (6858 S. sh.) — +0,2° C; in Vorkuta (6730’n.) — -6,8° C in Pevek (69 n) from -10,4° C -11,2° C in the Chukchi Caune (70 n) — -13,2° C, and in the Anadyr — -7,2° C.
it is Impossible not to recall the Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon, where the average temperature for the year ranges from -14° C to -17° C and where the average winter temperature is -52,8° C. In 1926 the geologist Sergey Obruchev in Oymyakon recorded temperature -71,2° C, while Soviet scientists registered in the Verkhoyansk -68° C.
Why is this happening? What provides these territories before the world that at the same latitude in Russia is much colder than abroad?
a Lot depends on the remoteness of the cities from the seas and oceans. Where the sea is near, the air is cooled slowly and the climate is milder.
the Second reason is the lack of warm currents off the coast of Russia. Alaska and Canada in the Pacific ocean, bathed by the warm Alaska current; USA, Greenland and Europe — by the Gulf stream, Norway — the Norwegian warm current. Japan warms warm current Kuroshio, from which our shores nothing: Primorye is cooled the Northern Kuril current.
From the North Russia is washed by the cold Arctic ocean, where warm Gulf stream dissolves. That is why 65% of the country — permafrost.
On the severity of the climate of our country can only be compared with Mongolia and partially in Kazakhstannominal Truth, climatologist Vinogradova encouraging: due to climate warming in Western Siberia, on the Taimyr Peninsula and Central Russia to the middle of the XXI warmer. Already, the warming is accelerating, by 1° C every 10 years, — it is written in the report of Roshydromet “On peculiarities of climate of the Russian Federation for 2018”.
© Russian Seven
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