History 17/02/20 Why Decembrist Kakhovsky wanted to kill the entire Romanov dynasty
When, after the Foreign campaigns against Napoleon, Russian army officers founded a secret revolutionary organization, there has never been consensus neither on what form of government is preferable to a Republic or a constitutional monarchy, not about what to do with the reign of the Emperor. The most radical of future Decembrists were offered not only to kill Alexander I, but also to exterminate the entire Royal dynasty. To the credit of most of the conspirators, these bloodthirsty among them were few.
Too favored the poles to the detriment of the Fatherland
the First conspiracy to assassinate Alexander I matured, oddly enough, before finalizing the revolutionary organizations of the Decembrists and the policy of armed revolution. This was due to the longstanding goodwill that the Emperor was rendered to Poland.
At the Congress of Vienna the European powers, in 1815, a large part of Poland was annexed to the Russian Empire. Alexander I did not want to rule it on a General basis, as throughout the Empire, but decided to establish in Poland a separate state constitutional systems, like Finland, United with Russia only in the person of the monarch.
both before and after Napoleon’s invasion, Alexander I was repeatedly instructed to develop a draft Constitution for Russia, but did not dare to give it the force of law. It is quite possible that the constitutional experiences in Finland and Poland, the king wanted to convince conservative circles (and perhaps himself) that in the Constitution there is nothing dangerous. Of course, Alexander I also knew that the tradition of the Moscow autocracy is not suitable for successful governance in the European culture, which became part of his Empire.
In 1817, Alexander I was going to go to Warsaw with the aim to publish solemnly granted to them the Constitution PaulShi. In Russian society, rumors spread that the king intends to restore the borders of Poland until 1772, that is, to issue a Manifesto about the inclusion of the Kingdom of Poland Lithuania, Belarus and right-Bank Ukraine. This has caused particular anger because in the just-ended war the poles were loyal allies of Napoleon.
most of the future Decembrists were at this time United in a secret “Society of true and loyal sons of the Fatherland” (another name – “Union of salvation”). About the intentions of the king they were notified by letter of their brother, Prince S. P. Trubetskoy. Trubetskoy’s letter was read at the meeting of the society A. N. Muravyov. Almost unanimously have ruled that the prevention of this plan of the king should be killed. Ants proposed to cast lots to risk himself to make the attempt. No lots to be a Kingslayer volunteered I. D. Yakushkin. He even outlined a plan that was going to kill Alexander I during the service in the assumption Cathedral during his upcoming visit to Moscow.
cooled down, the members of the secret society abandoned its decision. Perhaps they learned that the rumor about “the betrayal of the Tsar of Russia” was misinformation. However, Yakushkin was so upset by the fact that the brothers forbade him to kill the king, even temporarily out of a secret society. Alexander I do not made any allusion to the accession to the Polish Kingdom any Ruthenian (as it was then called the Ukrainian and Belarusian) lands. But who knows, maybe he left this idea under the influence of rumors of an impending attempt on his life? As we now know, king was well aware of what was said and was prepared to “secret societies.”
the Arguments for regicide
In the preparation of program documents of secret societies and the military coup the fate of the king and the dynasty has repeatedly been discussed among the conspirators. The most ardent supporters of regicide was made by P. I. Pestel, K. F. Ryleev, and P. G. Kakhovsky.
Pestel and Ryleev were the lastavatarname supporters of Republican rule. Line Pestel prevailed in southern society of the Decembrists, based in Ukraine. In the Northern society in St. Petersburg, the Republicans were in the minority. Here the prevailing view about the desirability of a constitutional monarchy. Ryleev this position was not shared. Both Pestel and Ryleev – did not rule out the regicide and to prevent the restoration of the monarchy after the revolution.
the fiercest preacher of the extermination of the reigning dynasty was Kakhovka. He argued to fellow secret society not to leave anyone alive who carry the Royal blood. In support of his opinion he cited the example of the restoration of the Bourbons in France. While there is at least one person associated with the origin of the dynasty, argued Kakhovka will always get the conspiracy to elevate him to the throne. The Romanov dynasty should be cut to the last, including women and babies.
Most of the Decembrists rejected the arguments of the violent fall, but admitted that the circumstances of the revolution may be forced to go to the regicide. Kahovskogo like not knowing the doubt in this matter, instructed to perform this task if necessary.
Practice the failed coup
Current events violated the plan for the uprising. Alexander I died suddenly, and the conspirators decided to act, taking advantage of the interregnum. The throne passed to his brother Nicholas I, and that he had to kill Kahovskogo. But when it came down to it, Kakhovsky decided not to take this Commission, though mortally wounded appearing to negotiate with the rebels of General M. A. Miloradovich and refused to side with the rebels of Colonel N.To. The [, for which he was subsequently hanged.
Another member of the Northern society V. K. Kuchelbecker unsuccessfully attempted during the rebellion on the younger brother of the new king – Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich. He Yakushkin (not participating actively in the uprising) was sentenced to twenty years in a black and white dressabout as “potential regicide”.
Quite ironic that the real danger to the life of Alexander I of conspirators proceeded for his (alleged or actual) intention to donate the Russian lands in favor of a constitutional Poland. That is, in this episode, the Decembrists acted as the guardians of Russian national interests, and the king as a traitor to the Fatherland. But the most paradoxical, probably, that Alexander I until the end of his days received detailed and accurate information about the plans of the conspirators, and that projects of political and social change, secretly produced his errands, but never carried out, were often no less radical than that of the Decembrists.
what would have been the fate of the Tsar family’s members in case of success of the Decembrist revolution in 1825 is unknown, but it is unlikely the conspirators would have gone on about their most radical counterparts. After the coup were held formally in the name of the reign of Alexander I, brother of Constantine.
© Russian Seven
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