History 31/12/19 Why after the war Soviet women did not want to have children
the Second world war ended with the victory of the Soviet Union. It would seem that everything had to go to the growth, including fertility. But the reality was much simpler and sadder.
to Live became better and more fun
Soviet Losses in the war are still the subject of discussions of historians and politicians. The archives of the registry offices give 169 million on January 1, 1946, the CSO counted in the USSR 191,7 million in 1940. The journal American Sociological Review in 1948 estimated the Soviet losses in the war at 26.5 million people. Focus on the figure in the 20-27 million people, most of whom were civilians. Killed not only a lot of men and women of childbearing age and children, which caused the effect of the “demographic pit”. Here should be added the hundreds of thousands of soldiers who have returned wounded and died in the early postwar years, unable to give new life. According to the 1959 census, for every 1000 women had 641 male, writes the journal of the Higher school of Economics “Demoscope Weekly”. Moreover, the gender bias in the Russian Federation was higher than in Belarus, Ukraine and the Baltic States taken together, although they had been under Nazi occupation as a whole, whereas in Russia under the Germans was no more than a third of the territory.
to Live in the country-the winner was not easy, in particular, in 1945-1946, the food, especially bread, is not enough. Few people in such circumstances would dare to have children. The abolition of the rationing in 1947 helped a little — it was a gesture more than symbolic.
paradoxically, the low birth rate was influenced by the construction that unfolded throughout the Soviet Union to eliminate the consequences of the great Patriotic war. People just did not feel rooted, not making plans for the near future, because they are here today, and tomorrow can be transferred to the other end of the country.
the Curve of the birth rate creeping down
Researcher Nicholas Savchenkoon studied data on fertility in the USSR in the forties. In the last prewar year to 20.1 births per 1,000 inhabitants. Next year 17,53 per thousand. Fertility falls sharply in 1942, to 11.99 newborns. And in 1943 reached the lowest point in the war, per 1,000 population born to 8.6 persons. In 1946 recorded 17.12 newborns per thousand, but the post-war birth rate has not reached the pre-war values, said Savchenko.
but losses of men and of women of childbearing age, a negative impact on fertility has had a massive abortion. Abortion was a criminal offense in 1936-1955 years and 90% of them were held in secret, which caused a surge of deaths of mothers and children. The unavailability of contraception lead to unwanted pregnancies and hundreds of thousands have passed abortion remained barren. Not saved position even many children of the inhabitants of Soviet Central Asia and the Caucasus.
© Russian Seven
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