History 10/01/20 White guard brigade: how many Russian soldiers served as mercenaries in the army of China
in 1923 in North China and Manchuria settled to 400 thousand former citizens of the Russian Empire. For the white Russians, China did not become a safe haven. The country was torn by civil war, with its large-scale battles, famine, and mass murder. Russian emigration in poverty, many of the soldiers, Cossacks and White army officers went to mercenaries and wearing a Chinese military uniform.
North vs South
In the early 20-ies of XX century China was split into warring regions controlled by local potentates, who pompously called marshals. The strongest was the South group, the Kuomintang headed by sun Yat-Sen and later Chiang Kai-shek and the troops of Marshal From Pafu ruled by Beijing.
Southerners adhered to Communist views and counting on the assistance of the Soviet agents and Communist international. Peifu and the rest of the northerners received assistance from Japan. Manchuria, where he settled the majority of Russian, was controlled by Marshal Zhang Tsolin, who until recently was a gangster named Sloppy and hunted robbery on the Chinese Eastern railway.
Russian instructors, police and military
the Chinese marshals had numerous but poorly armed and poorly trained armies. To get a competitive advantage over enemies potentates began to draw in his troops the most experienced Russian fighters. Since 1923 these troops numbering between 300 and 700 people appeared in the armed forces of the marshals At Peifu, Zhang Zuolin and General Fen Yuxiang.
According to researcher Sergei Balmasova, by this time, the Chinese form put up to 3 thousand Russian officers, soldiers and Cossacks. Since 1921 advisers when Zhang Saline was Professor E. Tarle and military engineer Kolchak’s army V. Nevsky. An army of Manchurian Marshal hired generals Petukhov, Tomaszewski, BBaryshnikova, Clerjus and other officers.
Russian specialists have created a Chinese aircraft were engaged in the construction of military facilities, trained recruits to fight with modern guns and artillery. In Shanghai, local authorities of emigres attracted to policing. This was organized by the Shanghai volunteer regiment of 300 officers and Russian volunteer detachment in the French concession (250).
To combat the “red hunghutz” supporting the Communists of the South, commanders of the Northern Alliance was attracted by the Special cavalry regiment of Colonel Semenov. Russian riders have cleared of robbers whole areas of Shandong province. From local elders Semenov received a thank-you letter in which they wrote: “Very grateful to the Russian side for the liberation of the us from hunghutz… With the residents, Your soldiers were treated well, and when they left, the whole population accompanied them there”.
the Russian mercenaries as a factor in the victory
In 1924 the war between marshals and Pro-Bolshevik, the southerners announced the beginning of the Northern campaign to unify the country. Zhang Tsolin offered the Russian volunteers to take part in the fighting. For a short time, was formed by the Russian brigade of General Konstantin Petrovich Nechaev. The number of units does not exceed 3 thousand soldiers, among whom were the Manchus and Northern Chinese.
During the fighting the soldiers Nechayev received 10 dollars a day, they were supposed state-owned food and content. An important source of income for mercenaries was the collection of trophies. The serviceability of the rifle, the employer paid $ 50, and for the Mauser, Browning or gun — twice. The gun was supposed to 10 thousand dollars, the capture of an enemy staff officer and General estimated at 3 thousand dollars.
In a short time the Russian “bears” earned a reputation as formidable soldiers, who with their skills, defeat the numerically superior enemy. Team Nechaeva and other white troops of Marshal Zhang Zuolin and his ally Zhang Czuchna took part in almost all the major battles in North China. With their help, was defeated by the army of Marshal From Papu.
Russian military experts, skillfully using artillery, armored trains and airplanes, smashed numerous Chinese divisions. For example, in January 1925, two armored trains of Colonel Kostrova, which was 800 Russian soldiers, a daring RAID broke into Shanghai and took the three million, the city under his control.
the end of the Russian brigade
a Dangerous enemy was well-armed and trained by Soviet instructors troops of the Kuomintang. In March 1926, Nechaev was seriously wounded and permanently lost the ability to command the mercenaries. Without him in the team began desertion, drunkenness and looting. The decline of discipline and morale have led to delays in payments. There has been an overall fatigue from a foreign war.
In the battles of summer of 1927 in the Yangtze river basin Nechaeva suffered heavy losses and retreated steadily under the onslaught of the southerners. 21 June 1928 Japanese intelligence agents blew up Zhang Zuolin, and by September of the same year, the Northern coalition was defeated. According to the historian Sergei Balmasova, after the death of Zhang Zuolin Russian brigade dismissed. Soldiers and officers received a monthly salary and a temporary residence permit. During the fighting, 1924-1928 years killed about 2 thousand Russian military personnel.
© Russian Seven
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