History 21/01/20 Which areas China wanted to take the USSR after Stalin’s death
relations between the USSR and China have not always evolved smoothly. At the end of 1950-ies the Chinese leadership began to make its Northern neighbor a grudge against the new course chosen by Khrushchev, and also to make a claim on the part of Soviet territory.
Start the cooling of relations between the USSR and the PRC was based on a speech by Nikita Khrushchev at the XX Congress of the CPSU in February 1956 in which he denounced Stalin’s personality cult and condemned the unjustified repression carried out during his reign. The Chinese Communists and personally, Mao Zedong did not agree with such a categorical condemnation of “leader”. To clarify the position of the CPC Central Committee came to Moscow, comrade Liu Shaoqi, who noted that, in the opinion of Beijing, in the evaluation of Stalin “no comprehensive analysis”, moreover, the Soviet leadership before making such statements was “to consult with the fraternal parties”.
Zhang Deguang in his book “a look at the diplomacy angle of traditional Chinese values,” writes that for China that time, Stalin served as a model Marxist-Leninist and proletarian revolutionary, was “the acknowledged leader of the international Communist movement”. According to Dagano, in Beijing, acknowledged that Stalin in his political career made some serious blunders, however, focused attention on the fact that his achievements outweigh them many times. Especially unacceptable criticism of Stalin’s was for Mao, who believed the Soviet leader his friend and teacher.
the New Soviet leader Khrushchev on the contrary was perceived as a politician who refused the Stalinist path of development, and betrayed Lenin’s precepts and embarked on the dangerous path of revisionism. From now on, any actions of Moscow, especially on foreign policy arena, Beijing was subjected to sharp criticism, and acted not at all inconsistent. For example, in China called “adventure” placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba, and their conclusion – “the defeatist”. Very concerned about in China was a warming of relations between former antagonists, the Soviet Union and the United States. The Chinese resented that Khrushchev sees America not as a hostile imperialist power but as a partner for the settlement of international tension.
Beijing, unlike Moscow has not abandoned the ideas of the Comintern, which had to be implemented around the world revolutionary war. So, at the international Congress of representatives of Communist and workers ‘ parties in Moscow in November 1957, Mao Zedong announced the idea that if a nuclear war on the planet will be only half of humanity (the best, in his opinion), that in short time will create a civilization, many times superior to the imperialist world and differing from it by humanism and justice.
By 1963, the leadership of the CPC Central Committee emboldened so that in the sent to Moscow the letter didn’t just attacked the course by the Soviet government, but also put forward a number of requirements. These include the equal recognition of China by the Communist force in the world, the transfer of technology of the hydrogen bomb, as well as the return of “lost territories” in addition to Mongolia. The USSR and China had entered its active phase “of the great war of ideas.”
While help – need
Pushing to Moscow, such an absolute requirement of Beijing, however, had reason to hope that they can be executed – the previous period of relations between the two countries gave to this occasion. After the victory of the Chinese Communists over the Guomindang government in 1949, the Soviet Union has been actively helping his younger teammates to build a new socialist state.
February 4, 1950, USSR and PRC signed a Treaty “on friendship, Alliance and mutual assistance” for a period of 30 years. However, this mutual aid wore more hASTU unilateral and virtually uncompensated. Thus, Moscow gave Beijing control over the Chinese-Changchun railway, withdraw its troops from the naval base of Port Arthur, was ceded to China and the port of Dalny (Dalian) with all his property. In addition, the Soviet government provided China concessional loan of 300 million dollars at 1% per annum.
later, the USSR actively helped China in the construction of factories and other industrial facilities, were given Beijing a license to manufacture hundreds of types of military equipment and weapons, the Chinese experts were acquainted with Soviet advances in nuclear technology, and about 25 thousand students from China absolutely free were educated in Soviet universities.
There is a perception that Mao Zedong, who had the deepest respect for Stalin even expressed a desire for the inclusion of China into the Soviet Union on the rights of the Federal Republic. The Soviet leader is allegedly replied with the wish that China remains an independent political force in the region. If the “great helmsman” is really wanted the integration with the Union, it is likely he did not as a sign of gratitude to Stalin. Historians do not exclude that after Mao’s death “great leader” could claim the leadership in the United state.
In the USSR, Mao Zedong openly disliked, perhaps with the exception of Joseph Stalin. He was considered the leader of the peasant with the manners of nationalist. Mao responded in kind: his attitude to the USSR was a purely consumer – we love you as long as you help us. He harbored a distrust of the high-ranking Chinese Communists, took a Pro-Moscow position and configured to cooperate with the Soviet Union. In the end, the “great helmsman” will deal with their opponents are typically Stalinist methods: eliminate some physically, others will be forced to leave China.
After the resonant speech of Khrushchev at the XX Congress, which offended the sense thatvarisha Mao and the Chinese Communists, loyal to Lenin’s cause, the CPC Central Committee began to unilaterally curtail the developing relationship between China and the USSR. So, in October 1958, Beijing rejected the proposal of Moscow on the construction of a Soviet base for submarines and radar tracking stations. In response, the leadership of the USSR withdrew all their specialists from construction of the Chinese national economy and raised the question on expediency of cooperation with China in the field of nuclear energy.
since the summer of 1960 at many sites more than 7000 km-long Sino-Soviet border have been incidents that provoked Beijing. The Maoists often repeated the words of their leader that the Soviet Union “occupied too much space” and he would do well to return seized lands back. Zedong insisted on the revision of the Russian-Chinese treaties of the XVII–XIX centuries, where the question of territorial delimitation was not solved in favor of China. In China in the first place wanted to return to historical possessions of the Qing dynasty, the former “Outer Manchuria” (the Amur region, Primorye, Khabarovsk Krai), and parts of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Altai.
of Course, no concessions to the Kremlin to Beijing was not going to do as a younger brother, one-sided perceiving of the idea of world revolution, which alone was a danger to the Soviet Union. Moscow itself had claims on Chinese province of Xinjiang, formerly East Turkestan.
In 1966, China started the cultural revolution in which Mao Zedong completely usurped power in the country. All relations between the Communist parties of both countries are torn down and the Soviet government urgently evacuated from Beijing family of Soviet diplomats. In China, the Soviet Union finally raised to the status of enemy, but not primitive and predictable as the United States, and sly and treacherous, hiding under the guise of communism.
In the late 1960s border conflicts between China and the Soviet Union are becoming more systemMATIC and action-oriented. They culminated in the incident that escalated into clashes around the small Damansky island on the Ussuri river, de jure belonged to the Soviet Union. Pushing their citizens in violation of the Soviet border, Beijing tried to make it look like the Soviet Union itself arranges provocations, depriving of the ability of Chinese farmers to engage in farming in the usual places. These statements did not seem unfounded island in one night was dug by tractors to create visibility agricultural land.
the two-week armed conflict between the USSR and the PRC in March 1969, which killed more than 800 Chinese military and 58 of the Soviet border guards led to the establishment of the status quo. The Sino-Soviet actually became a neutral territory. However, border conflicts continued to erupt in other parts of the Soviet-Chinese border, which threatened to turn into full-scale war between the two countries. In 2010 the French newspaper Le Figaro, citing Chinese sources, claimed that in the summer and autumn of 1969, the Soviet Union was preparing for PRC nuclear attack. Only at the end of October 1969, the USSR and China agreed that the settlement of the Sino-Soviet territorial disputes, you must sit at the negotiating table.
In the end, diplomatic measures failed to repay the tensions of Sino-Soviet relations. The Sino-Soviet question has remained open until the collapse of the Soviet Union. In 1990-2000-ies signed several bilateral agreements which damanskii island, the island Tarabarov and part of the territory of the Big island and the Western part of the Big Ussuri island became part of China. At the moment, according to the statement, both Russian and Chinese sides, between the two States are no more unresolved territorial issues.
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