Another 26/01/20 When the Soviet Union was the weakest armed forces
the Soviet army since the creation of the USSR until its collapse was in constant process of transformation and renewal. However, for a brief period of domestic armed forces were especially vulnerable to the enemy.
Despite the fact that by the early 1930s, the Soviet Union has largely overcome the consequences of post-revolutionary chaos, and the Red army increased its combat capability, some problems still existed. They focused on staffing and logistical side of the armed forces.
Publicist Andrei Smirnov’s article, “the Celebration show” notes that by 1930 the years, it has become obvious inconsistency of many red army commanders to posts. Got to many… In particular, a large portion of critical arrows took Tukhachevsky, who was accused of incompetence and the collapse of the armed forces.
problems with the staff aggravated the political situation prevailing at that time in the USSR. Many talented officers from the category of “former” and the offspring of noble families and representatives of the intelligentsia access to the armed forces was, if not forbidden, it is much more difficult.
the Officer corps was mainly replenished by immigrants from peasant families. This led to the fact that most Soviet generals had a very low level of General education. Note that since the late 1920-ies, there was significant growth of the red army, which increased the need for commanders, and to fill these gaps was virtually no one.
in Addition to the staffing issue is a big concern and financial status of the officers. Writer Alexei Isaev’s book, “From Dubno do Rostova” gives this comparison: if by the middle of 1930-ies teacher high school received 750 rubles, the salary of the commander platoon was only 600 rubles. It is necessary to consider all the hardships the officers of life: frequent travel, long working hours and, of course, the danger is constantly exposed soldiers.
one More unpleasant situation faced by the army authorities, is the lack of available workers who could rebuild the military infrastructure: roads, bridges, airfields, barracks, sportgoods. All it had to do with forces personnel to the detriment of its combat training.
good reflection of Affairs in the Soviet army 30’s became famous autumn teachings of 1936, held in the Belorussian military district. They have been criticized by many military experts. For example, the head of the combat training of the red army Alexander Sedyakin noted that the maneuvers showed the incapacity of intelligence, who was unable to communicate further than 5 km away. this is why mechanized brigades had to act virtually blind.
In 1937-38 command of the armed forces of the USSR, a wave of repression. According to the book “the Great Patriotic war. 1941-1945. A brief history” (Moscow, 1965), slightly more than a year cleansing plunged about 50% of the regimental commanders, nearly all the commanders of brigades, divisions and corps, and commanders of military districts. Was arrested many military theorists, whose works were seized from public access.
Of the 16 people awarded the rank of army commanders and marshals, after the Great terror survived only three. And among the commanders of high rank was no one who was not going to be compromising. Under threat of reprisals were the future heroes of the great Patriotic war: Bagramyan, Konev, Malinovsky, Zhukov. In total over the period of the cleansing of the ranks of the red army was deleted about 40 thousand commanders and political workers.
How will this affect the state of the armed forces? Of course, you can take into account the opinion of historians who believe that cleaning send armies to use, as the hutsavili it from the ballast – unspectacular commanders like Tukhachevsky. However, it is impossible not to recognise the fact that repression is not passed to the army without a trace.
Who replaced the departing? “Green” young people with no proper training, no real combat experience. So, out of 225 commanders who took part in the training camp of the summer of 1940, only 25 was behind the military school, the rest graduated from the Lieutenant’s courses.
it is Important that the initiators of repressions encouraged the military to take an active part in exposing their commanders, which has a negative impact both on the environment in the military and on military discipline.
the reaction for cleaning in the ranks of the red army, the German commanders. For example, Wilhelm Keitel does not get tired to remind Hitler that “Stalin destroyed in 1937-38 the entire first echelon of senior military commanders, and capable minds among those who came to their place yet.”
a Kind of token of repression in the ranks of the red army became the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940. Despite the fact that the Soviet Union failed to win its Northern neighbor strategically important areas, in General, the war caused a lot of negative evaluations. The figures are eloquent: for the three months and 12 days of the conflict the Soviet Union lost $ 131 476 people, while the Finnish army lost 48 243 men.
Marshal Zhukov in an interview with the writer Konstantin Simonov described the results of the Soviet-Finnish war “the worst result”. According to him, there was a terrible decline in the level of discipline, manifested in unauthorized absences and desertions. Limp, in the opinion of the Marshal, and military training: “Many commanders felt confused, unable to restore order.”
Already during the war, Soviet commanders had to change the structure of command and control. The slow progress of Soviet troops in the first phase of the war forced the country’s leadership to organize the Bid, which took over the functions of command and control in theater of operations.
PRomaji of the Soviet command during the war with Finland did not go unnoticed abroad. So, Winston Churchill, after the encirclement and destruction of the 44th infantry division of the red army stated that the Finns opened to the world the weakness of the red army.
the Completion of the Soviet-Finnish war was marked by the fact that the order of people’s Commissar of defense No. 0013 dated March 26, 1940, was disbanded control of the North-Western front. The sad experience of the war forced Stalin to release many of the survivors of the purges of commanders, who were in the camps and prisons. On the eve of the great Patriotic war returned in about a quarter of previously repressed representatives of middle and senior officers.
© Russian Seven
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