History 20/02/20 What would happen to the Soviet Union when Beria took power
In 1953, Beria was the 54th year. He became head of state, he could still long to be at the pinnacle of power, but his execution has ruled out these prospects. What could expect of the Soviet Union in case of victory of one of Stalin’s associates?
Stalin did not leave behind a successor after the death of the leader for the top post of the country was claimed by four: Beria, Khrushchev, Malenkov and Bulganin. As a result, power was divided between the two – Grigory Malenkov took the position of Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lavrenty Beria, became his Deputy and Minister of the interior. However, the real head of the country was, of course, Beria.
reliance on the security structure, Beria in the short term has replaced the heads of the interior Ministry in all the Union republics and in most regions of the RSFSR, and the new appointees have already had a replacement frame in the middle by a loyal Beria people.
For a few months of being on the top of the power Beria was able to prove itself as an ambitious politician: at his initiative was a large-scale Amnesty, stopped the trials against the political prisoners. Lavrenty Pavlovich intended to liquidate the collective farm system and to expand the rights of all republics in the USSR. He was also a supporter of rapprochement between the USSR and the West.
did Beria opportunity to prevent his overthrow and take power by force? In may 1953 he was at the peak of its power and with the help of the administrative resource could deal with any of its opponents. Journalist Alexei Durnovo believes that it was not enough to arrest Khrushchev and Malenkov, it was necessary to detain several dozen of their supporters. The next step is to explain to the country that the party snuck enemies, trying to sabotage the building of socialism, and to decapitate the opposition.
Then, according to Durnovo, Beria long could “enjoy the power not a huge rippling Union.” Lawrence p. peacefully would grow old, awarding themselves medals and titles used to honor the Politburo and respected by the people. The journalist believes that “Beria of the Soviet Union” would be similar in many ways to the country which we saw later under Brezhnev.
a Missed opportunity
Many modern historians believe that with the death of Beria, we lost a talented and active man. They believe that socialism, when Lavrenti Pavlovich continued to develop “successfully and perfectly” and the task of building in the USSR, a Communist society would become very real.
the Author of Beria writer Sergei Kremlev notes that the USSR, 1950-ies had a very impressive vistas. In his opinion, to implement them the perfect combination of leaders would be a tandem Malenkov-Beria, “where Beria would sit behind Malenkov, but now twisted to pedal”.
In this political scenario, Khrushchev probably would have remained in the Politburo, but would lose the post of first Secretary of the Moscow party Committee. Experts believe that the failures of Khrushchev in the area of agriculture, where he was considered an expert, would lead to the decline of his career.
Kremlev believes that if Beria remained in power, the whole history of the planet could develop in a completely different scenario: go not through militarization and capitalization, but the way of building a decent and just community workers. In this sense, the Kremlin talks about Beria as a missed chance not only of Russia but of all mankind.
the Whistleblower Stalin
it is considered that the cult of Stalin, Khrushchev debunked. However, in the spring of 1953, being at the head of the MGB, Beria became the author of a number of legislative and political acts, which indirectly denounced Stalin’s regime and repressions in 1930-50-ies. By some historians this was seen as the first breath of democratic change.
moreover, Beria stopped by Stalin initiated the so-called “doctors ‘ case” in which under the pretext conspiracy against the Soviet leaders of the persecution were a number of talented professionals. They were rehabilitated in two weeks. Many believe that in case of preservation of the power Beria continued to review the cases of the repressed.
human rights Activist Valery Borschev, on the contrary, calls a myth the fight Beria with Stalinism. Beria, in his words, and then be adhered to Stalinist methods of repression and Stalin’s technique of suppression; the GULAG would have not gone anywhere and we would get the option of dictatorship, close to the Chilean.
Many experts do not agree that Beria was waiting for us would be a totalitarian future. Blogger Anna Friz believes that Lavrenty Pavlovich did everything to democratize society. Take, for example, his note to the Presidium of the Central Committee on the abolition of passport restrictions from the peasants. The idea Beria was implemented only in the 1970-ies.
noteworthy attempt by Beria to divide the powers of government to limit the influence of ideology on the economic life of the country and return to real power of the Soviets.
Chief researcher of the Institute of world economy and international relations Georgy Mirsky believes that even the striving for democracy would deprive Beria desire to take the place of Stalin. However, he couldn’t do it. In his way would have been a lot of obstacles, for example Marshal Zhukov.
Toward the West
Beria was a supporter of the establishment of relations with the West. He intended to restore relations with Yugoslavia, and proposed to abandon the construction of socialism in East Germany to allow the merger of the GDR with West Germany.
the opinion of the world, the Soviet Union under Beria would have refused the path of militarization, would not go to the escalation of the cold war and would not cast in their adventure to Cuba. And relations with the United States, according to the expert, would be much more “light”.
the liquidation of the USSR
One of the motives for the overthrow of Beria was the confidence of Khrushchev that his opponent intends to destroy the Soviet Union. Here is what Nikita Khrushchev at the twentieth Congress of the CPSU: “Beria had designednny plan of liquidation of the Soviet system. What he did not dare to do during the life of Stalin, he launched after his death, began to discredit the policy of the greatest of Lenin, preparing the seizure of power and establishing a counterrevolutionary dictatorship. He began to vigorously promote the participants of conspiratorial groups to leadership positions. In their anti-Soviet renegade order of Beria and his accomplices have taken a number of criminal measures in order to reinforce the remnants of bourgeois-nationalist elements”.
the Doctor of historical Sciences Andrei Sakharov believes that Beria, like the man who was Stalin school of terror, would be to change the system. Because it was associated deployment structures of the Gulag, his name was tarnished by the repression of the 1930-ies. However, projects Beria, Sakharov called for a more liberal and pragmatic than Stalin’s.
Nikita Petrov, Deputy Chairman of the Council, scientific information and education centre “memorial”, believes that Lavrenty Beria was very little chance to cling to power. Even if he managed to win a place in the sun for a short while. In the 1950s, more vital is the spirit of Stalin, notes Nazarov, and so Beria murdered “completely Stalinist”.
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