History 22/02/20 Any uprisings occurred in Chechnya in the Great Patriotic
Chechnya under Soviet rule, as with the king, was one of the most problematic regions. The Communists have complicated his position by trying to break down traditional, arranged almost all Chechens, clan (teip) structure, force secularizing and to collectivize the Chechens. All of the 1920s and 1930s years it did not stop the fight (including armed) against the policy of Moscow and its commissioners. With the beginning of the great Patriotic war, she only received a new impetus.
the Revolt of Chechnya against the Soviets
the Original event at the call of the Chechens into the army passed relatively successfully. The mobilization of 1941, given the relatively small percentage of deviation. So, in August 1941, of the 8,000 Chechen recruits deserted only 719 in October of 362 4733. The situation has changed since the end of October 1941, after Galanchozhsky and Shatoi districts of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet socialist Republic (ASSR CHI) broke a spontaneous uprising of the farmers, was divided between collective farm land, livestock and equipment.
In January 1942, while trying to form a national Chechen division, were missing already half of the conscripts. In March 1942, from 14 576 mobilized deserted 13 560. That is, in the spring of 1942 in fact, Chechnya was already in a state of mass civil disobedience.
Many of the deserters joined the gang, not actually continued their activities in Chechnya after 1917. For the period from 1941 to February 1944 (the beginning of the deportation of the Chechens) the NKVD counted 657 dead bandits, 3875 captured or surrendered. This number significantly exceeded the number of dead and missing Chechens in the red army on the fronts of the great Patriotic war – about 2300.
In these circumstances, many indigenous representatives of the Soviet administration refused ont further work on power. Many of them passed to the rebels. On March 23, 1942 disappeared mobilized into the army member of the Supreme Council of ASSR CHI Dag Dag, and with it another 22 people, among whom were the judge and the district attorney. In August 1942, 16 of the first secretaries of district committees in CHI ASSR (i.e. almost all) disappeared from their posts.
the leaders of the uprising
leaders of the anti-Soviet rebels were former party and Soviet workers. So, a member of the CPSU(b), a lawyer and journalist Hasan Israilov, twice repressed, and in 1940 refused to recover the party and went into hiding. He took the pseudonym Thurlow – on behalf of his teip. Another leader of the rebels was, Mairbek Sheripov, who was Chairman of the Council on forest industry CHI ASSR and also previously repressed.
In different villages was organized by a group of rebels who were preparing the speech at the time of the approach of German troops. Israilov-Thurlow in January 1942, was created in an illegal meeting in Vladikavkaz of the underground “National socialist party of North Caucasian brothers”. Sheripov called their group “the Chechen-mountaineer national-socialist underground organization”. As you can see, both sought to give their movement an international scale in the framework of the Caucasus, wanted to attract other mountain peoples and focused in their ideology to the Nazis.
Israilov-Thurlow planned the first uprising in October 1941, but was postponed due to the fact that the Germans were still far away. And then his fighters were involved in fighting, supporting natural speech of his countrymen. Sheripov in August 1942, he managed to organize an uprising in the Itum-Kale and Stoevski area. Rebels with a previously defected to their side of the chief of Department on struggle against gangsterism of the NKVD CHI ASSR Idris Aliyev took control of the district center Khimoy.
the Use by the Germans of local separatism
Source most of the uprisings in Chechnya was organized by local forces and environmentsproperties. Another thing is that on the basis of mass rejection of the Communists, the Nazi agents had to work quite easily. Although the original plans of the German leadership and stood inciting ethnic-separatist unrest in the Soviet Union, it seems that the magnitude of natural movement in the North Caucasus came as a surprise to the Nazis, and they failed to use it to the full.
So, the Germans were unable to take advantage of the massive uprising in Chechnya for a breakthrough to the oilfields of Grozny, the former one of the main goals of the offensive in 1942. None of subversive groups, sbrasyvanija by the Germans on the parachutes in Chechnya, was not strong enough to work together with the bandits to disrupt the rear of the red army, or put the oil fields out of action. These groups, as a rule, destroyed the troops of the NKVD or, at most, broke back through the front line, taking a few deserters-soldiers of the Caucasian peoples.
And this despite the fact that the North Caucasus was prepared in advance of 804 th regiment of a division of special forces of the Wehrmacht’s “Brandenburg-800”, and a battalion of special forces of the Abwehr “Bergman”, which consisted in the majority of highly-qualified natives of the Caucasus. The Germans had expected, probably even more the activity of local Chechens in the case of “liberation”, and probably just not figured out a clear retaliation of the Soviet security organs.
the Sluggishness of the German command shows the fact that the slow organization of the volunteer units of the Wehrmacht and the SS from Soviet prisoners of war of Caucasian Nations. Although the national side was for the Germans a priority collaborationist formations of Slavs, but the creation of the North Caucasus Legion of the Wehrmacht began only in September 1942. However, until 1945, he even was not used on the Eastern front.
On the occupation planning was not
it was Not the Nazi leadership clear plans on how to deal with territory and peoples The North Caucasus after a victory over the Soviet Union. However, such plans were not against the Soviet Union. There was only the project of establishing, for the period of the war, the Reich Commissariat of the Caucasus (backgammon with the same reichskommisariat Ukraine and Ostland, really created, and two more planned – Muscovy and Turkestan).
Surviving documents and maps show that the Ministry of the “Eastern territories” of Alfred Rosenberg long wise over the administrative organization of the new Reichskommissariat. All its territorial units are exactly the same as the Soviet republics, regions and Autonomous region. So, CHI ASSR had just become the General Commissariat of the Chechen-Ingushetia.
Not encouraged by the Nazis and interests of the Chechen neophytes the ideas of national socialism. Familiar with the program Israilov-Terloeva Lieutenant “Brandenburg-800” Richard Lange called it “frankly idiotic”.
© Russian Seven
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