History 15/02/20 What Stalin did to the emigres who returned to the USSR
Joseph Stalin – one of the most controversial personalities in Russian history. At almost 31 years of the Board have a powerful economic breakthrough and a terrible famine, the victory over fascism and the massive repression of dissent, two waves of emigration and re-emigration.
Fled from the war and from the Soviets
In 1922, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist party of the Soviet Union – the higher party, and after the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924 – in fact, the highest leadership position in the state. At this point, according to various estimates, the country – the Russian Empire and later the Russian Republic, left more than a million people. Thus, according to the red cross, we are talking about 1,19 million people on November 1, 1920; assessment of the League of Nations – about 1.4 million by August of 1921. And, for example, the historian Vladimir Kabuzan put the figure at five million emigrated from Russia in the period from 1918 to 1924 – the time of the Civil war and the establishment of the Soviet state.
However, a significant outflow of the population due to internal conflict in the country, by the time the final victory of the Bolsheviks and the USSR disappeared. Already in 1921 – 1925 a significant number of emigrants returned to the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Soviet Union. As a result, in 1926 the number had fled from the Russian border, according to the League of Nations, fell to 755,3 thousand people. In the organization at this time counted about 200 thousand Armenian immigrants. A significant role in the return of many played by the end of the Civil war and the emergence on the ruins of the Russian Empire solid power – Soviet.
However, in those years there were those who left their homeland for reasons that are far from household problems of internal strife. Their emigration was called “White” and was associated with the Exodus from the country neaglestion with the Communist ideology and unprepared to put up with her military, the nobility, the intelligentsia. My role in this was played by Lenin, started the struggle with dissent, the apogee of which was “a Philosophical steamship”. Most fled for ideological reasons found a job abroad, worked and died far from home in the USA, France, UK or, closer, in Czechoslovakia. Many, such as philosopher Ivan Ilyin and Pitirim Sorokin, the end of life remained the opponents of Bolshevism, but this has not been lost sight of everything that is happening in Russia.
however, there were those who eventually began to sympathize with the Soviets and decided to return home. Contributed to this, in particular, adopted in 1921, the decree of the VTSIK of the RSFSR for the restoration of the rights of certain categories of persons, common and “all located in the far East, in Mongolia and Western China rank and file soldiers of the white armies”.
as a result of the 400-strong Russian colony in China only in 1922-1923 at least 100 thousand people have returned home.
Much has changed and the Second world war and in General the coming to power of Hitler in Germany. Russian emigres then in fact divided into two camps: those who continued to fight against USSR on the side of his opponents, and those who took part in the Resistance Movement. Historians have noted that the second was larger. In addition, the number of supporting Third Reich refugees after the appearance of information about the perpetrated by the Nazis atrocities against the civilian population began to rapidly melt.
as a result, by the end of the war, when the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany was not a shadow of doubt, among immigrants, the new surge Voskresensky sentiment. In 1946 the Union was adopted by the concomitant decree of the Presidium of the restoration of citizenship of subjects of the former Russian Empire living in France. According to the notes of the artist Ksenia Krivosheina, only from there immigrated to Israel about two thousand people. In this case then, a similar document was adopted and in relation to the émigrés in China.
However, the exact number of returnees in the post-war period to calculate quite difficult because at the same moment began the second wave of emigration – mainly associated with the movement of “unreliable” persons over the borders of the USSR. Thus, curiously, in the Soviet Union until 1975 in the Russian Federation have moved more people than went.
Homesickness beyond ideology
the fate of the white immigrants and intellectuals, who returned to the USSR, was different. But usually it was tragic.
So, in 1937 in the Soviet Union returned Sergei Efron, the husband of Marina Tsvetaeva and White army officer, later took a more Pro-Soviet positions and even collaborated with the secret services of the USSR. Almost immediately after the return of his wife, the poet from exile in 1939, he was arrested. After two years of imprisonment, he was shot, after living with this for a few months more most Tsvetaeva, who had committed suicide.
No less tragic fate was waiting for one of the passengers of the “Philosophical steamship” philosopher Lev Karsavin, who is in the frame as possible to consider and the immigrant and returnee. Since the late 1920s, he settled in Lithuania, in Kaunas University he worked for 12 years Professor of General history. After the Baltic States joined the USSR, he continued to teach. But over time, it changed his life: in 1944 he was suspended from duty and dismissed in 1949 he was arrested and accused of involvement in anti-Soviet Eurasian movement and preparing to overthrow the Soviet regime. Karsavin’s life ended in the special camp in the Komi Republic.
however, many can find enough happy stories back. So, another passenger of the “Philosophical steamship” Valentin Bulgakov – the head of a number of literary museums and follower of Leo Tolstoy in his maprotilinom the teaching – in 1948 the newly adopted Soviet citizenship. He settled in Yasnaya Polyana, where for almost 20 years was the Keeper of the house of his preceptor. Ten years later he was accepted as a member of the Union of Soviet writers and wrote several essays that were published.
the Story of Bulgakov shows that not all immigrants the attitude of the Soviet authorities was biased. However, to deny that the latter treated him with suspicion, too.
© Russian Seven
Featured articles Share: Comments Comments on the article “What Stalin did to the emigres who had returned to the USSR” Please log in to leave a comment! br>
Share on Tumblr