History 14/02/20 What Soviet Republic that benefited the most from the collapse of the USSR
the Collapse of the Soviet Union, for the preservation which the outcome of the General Soviet 1991 referendum was made by 78% of citizens caused a collapse of the economy in all the Union republics. Despite the apparent unanimity in the results of the survey, divided socialist state of the centrifugal forces were very strong, and local authorities of the Baltic States, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova impede the people’s will, believing that only benefit from the collapse of the Union.
Unthinkable just 10-15 years before the collapse of the Soviet Union the event was caused by the weakening of the ideological component in the result of the Restructuring, designed to democratize the state system. The easing of censorship and publicity has released out many of the contradictions of the Soviet system, which was hiding behind dogmatic attitudes. Although the Constitution of 1977 provides for “the right freely to secede from the Soviet Union” each Union Republic, no one before the mid-1980s seriously did not dare to discuss this issue publicly, for fear of possible reprisals.
Freedom of speech stirred up the public masses, and announced in November 1988 the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR the primacy of local laws over Federal provoked the “parade of sovereignties”. It is noteworthy that in the Baltic republics, many Russian-speaking citizens believed that the benefit from the economic prosperity expected after independence, and the local political movements, the so-called popular fronts, have not yet embarked on the path of nationalism.
the power and the property
Most of the debate in 1990 between the Central government and the republics dealt with the struggle for redistribution in favor of the latter of power and property. Local leaders demanded “sovereignty”, which meant the full right to dispose of national assets. The Federal system of the USSR, manym where the Union collapsed more or less bloodless, with its clearly delineated boundaries, suggested the institution of government, staffed by national personnel.
Most of the separatist movements in varying degrees, this was provoked by the party elite – the national nomenklatura. Marxist ideology in the Soviet Union played a decisive importance, therefore, appeal to it theorists will not be excessive. Despite the odious figure of Leon Trotsky, his awareness in political matters little who is in doubt. In the 1930s he wrote about the threat of degeneration of the bureaucracy from a layer in an independent class, the collapse of the Soviet Union made this possible. Getting rid of the pressure center of the local nomenklatura has got enormous power.
Example of Turkmenistan in this context, the most revealing: the former first Secretary of the Republican Central Committee of Communist party Saparmurat Niyazov became after 1991 in Turkmenbashi (“head of the Turkmen”), whose cult of personality scale has few peers in modern history. To some extent the primacy of the former Soviet nomenklatura and its related entities is true not only for Central Asian republics, but for the entire post-Soviet space.
Religion and culture
the Belovezhsky agreement, in fact meant the end of the Soviet Union, in fact, was presented to its signatories not how to clean, but as the transformation of the former state of the Commonwealth of independent States (CIS). As a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a revival of national cultures and religions, which were perceived collapsed ideology as “the opium of the people” and a relic of the past that prevent the creation of a new Soviet person.
once the Restructuring in the regions of the USSR, a considerable number of periodicals on local crops, and there has been a growth of national consciousness. Even in Belarus, which the local intelligentsia rightly called “the most Soviet” of all the republics, in the late 1980-1990’s began the rise of nationalist forces. Originated this process in the Restructuring with the formation of youth associations of the type “locals” (“Local”), advocate of the Belarusian language and literature, and also studied folklore. But in the end in the beginning of 1990, the Belarusian popular front gathered at a rally in Minsk for about 100 thousand people, who sympathized with the “national revival”.
In other republics, the process took much larger scale than in Belarus. Religious Renaissance in all corners of the Soviet Union after the disintegration are also gaining momentum everywhere the churches were returned once selected temples. Traditional beliefs each year began to gain more and more supporters. So, the Russian Orthodox Church had in 1988, 76 dioceses and 6.8 thousand parishes, and by 2016, they became 293 and 34.7 thousand, respectively. Islam on their ancestral territories conquered no less success.
the Growth of national and religious identity had negative effects, contributing to many inter-ethnic conflicts. Living in the republics of the Russian-speaking population faced with the xenophobia that took different forms: from ignoring to direct security threats. Russian in the Baltic States have experienced problems with obtaining citizenship after gaining the countries of the region independence.
Slogans of economic growth through separation from the Union was very popular in the Baltic region and, if you believe the statistics, they were not so unfounded. Today the GDP per capita of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia overtake the Russian. Largely due to the fact that these countries inherited from the Soviet Union, good infrastructure and educated workforce. The Baltic States refused to many Soviet enterprises and industries, to refocus on the European Union, which invests in the region’s significant resources. The economic downturn after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Baltic countries overcame six years.
Kazakhstan’s performance is also quite good and roughly corresponds to Russian, other regions are lagging positions. Benefit from the collapse of the USSR were also multinational corporations (PepsiCo, Daimler, British American Tobacco, Royal Dutch Shell and many others) are found in the former Soviet Union markets and raw materials, bringing at the same time many benefits to the economies of the former Soviet countries.
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